Skip to main content

Full text of "Knight Letter No. 69"

See other formats


2003 a3Ni/\ins 69 ygai/MRN voiy3i/\iv HiyoN dO ai3ioos ,^^<noyyvo siMan 3hi 

a9^1).9^ a«(l»I«H 


Our Spring 2002 gathering took place on a hot, 
muggy April 13* at Princeton University, where the now- 
legendary founding meeting of the LCSNA occurred in 
1974.' After a convivial lunch at the nearby Lahiere's 
restaurant, we convened in the lobby of McCormick Hall. 
The reason we convened in the lobby was that the doors to 
the meeting room were locked, and no combination of keys, 
tables, and mushrooms was to any avail. This set the tone 
for the facilities that day: no microphones, lights turning 
themselves off at random intervals, and so on. Our spirits 
were never dampened, of course. The forty souls who 
managed to find the hall despite the absolute lack of maps 
on campus were suitably rewarded. 

Our first speaker was composer Lorraine Levender 
Whittlesey, last year's Gordon Artist in Residence at Yale, 
who spoke on her recent opus based on Carroll's Memoria 
Technica. It was her regrettable decision to present us with 
neither the complete fourteen-minute work nor even an 
excerpt, so the talk was on a rather abstract level.^ 

Written for the Morpheus Trio,^ which is com- 
prised of mezzo-soprano, French horn, and piano,'' the work 
is a tuneful polyphonic blend of a wide range of styles "fi"om 
blues to Wagner". 

Memoria Technica, literally meaning "ways of 
remembering", was first referred to in Dodgson's Diaries 
of 15 October 1875, and involved a way of memorizing 
logarithms. His system, based on an earlier one by Richard 
Gray, translates numbers into words. Carroll used only 
consonants, and hence was always able to produce easily 
remembered words, which he then put prominently into 
rhymed couplets. Gray used both vowels and consonants 
and often produced gibberish. 

' We have met there as well in '76, '84 (when Professor Knoepfl- 
macher spoke on George MacDonald), and '94. 

^ A CD of the piece is available ($10) from the composer at or PO Box 5684, Baltimore, MD 21210; 

' See 

■* Not as obscure as one might think. Schubert, Strauss, and Donizetti 
also composed for this configuration. 

Memoria Technica was first published by 
cyclostyle on 27 June 1877. Another leaflet published a 
year later gave couplets for memorizing the specific 
gravities of fifteen metals, which also provided some of 
the text for Whittlesey's composition.' 

Her libretto consisted in the main of examples of 
wordplay — anagrams, acrostics, palindromes — some of 
which were Carroll's, some her own (producing the 
occasional jarrmg reference to a Toyota or some such). 

The coincidence of the "M.T." inifials of Memoria 
Technica and the Morpheus Trio was not, in itself (forgive 
me) an empty one. 

We next heard Professor Ulrich Knoepflmacher's 
talk "Maurice in Wonderland, and What He Found There" 
on writer/illustrator Maurice Sendak. 

Professor Knoepflmacher first asked us to join "in 
one of those 'Let's Pretend' games that the Looking-Glass 
Alice cherishes but which the Wonderland Alice hasn't quite 
yet mastered" and imagine that the book in her sister's hand 
was Where the Wild Things Are,^ a book with many pictures 
and few words. He thought that if this were the case, Alice 
"would now prefer the atemporal escapades of an infect- 
iously raucous little wolf-boy to the dubious allurements 
proffered by a time-obsessed rabbit". He discussed the 
textual links in the works (size changes, travels, monsters) 
and the fact that while Carroll tried to brmg Alice to the 
stage, Sendak went for a "full-blown atonal opera with 
grinning giant puppets."'' 

The most revealing association between these two 
giants of children's lit is a series of drawings Sendak did in 
the mid-1950s [reproduced on facing page]. "The Victorian 
culture which had produced that dreamchild had also 
spawned The Interpretation of Dreams and an interest in 
the unconscious." Sendak explored his own unconscious 
meanderings in what he called "fantasy sketches" which he 
did while listening to music. He called them his "most 
personal" work.^ The sketch he did while listening to Deems 
Taylor's Through the Looking-Glass suite^ was then subject 
to Knopflmachers' insightfiil and detailed analysis. 

Martin Eames Burstein, IVi months, chases a white rabbit while his father 
and Professor Knoepflmacher look on. Photo by Cindy Walter. 

^ See Martin Gardner, The Universe in a Handkerchief, 1996 for 
the text. 

^ Winner of the Caldecott Medal in 1 964. 

' Music by Oliver Knussen, commissioned by Glyndeboume Festival 
Opera, Where the Wild Things Are (1979 - 83) has played in many 
venues all over the world and is available on both CD and video. 

* Ten of these "Fantasy Sketches" were printed by the Rosenbach 
Foundation in 1 970. Its preface was reprinted in Sendak's Caldecott 
& Co.: Notes on Books and Pictures (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 
1988; pb: Noonday Press, 1 990), with one of the sketches, Ihe Alice, 
also gracing the box cover in the limited edition. 

' Composer Deems Taylor (1885-1966) is popularly known as the 
narrator of Disney's Fantasia. His Through the Looking-Glass: 
Five Pictures from Lewis Carroll (Orchestral Suite, op. 12, 1917) 
has been often recorded. Rumors exist of a 78 of/lJ-Kread by him. 

In an aside, he mentioned that the Rosenbach, 
which once had housed the manuscript of the wr-text Alice s 
Adventures under Ground also has the wr-text Where the 
Wild Horses Are, which in later years Sendak said he revised 
because he "couldn't draw horses". The "Wild Things" of 
the title are a near-equivalent of his native Yiddish Vilde 

Professor Knopflmacher ended his talk with a 
comparison between Dodgson's love-object/inspiratrix and 
the canine protagonist of Higglety, Pigglety Pop!, based 
on Sendak's beloved Sealyham, Jennie. 

A Q&A period followed, the most memorable of 
which was "Would you mind 
putting the green hat on 
again?", and a reminder that 
at our upcoming meeting in 
San Francisco, the "Met- 
reon", Sony's "Entertain- 
ment Center" (which is only 
a few yards from SFMoMA) 
has an entire floor devoted 
to an interactive larger-than- 
life re-creation of Where 
the Wild Things Are. 

August Imholtz 
next announced an exciting 
discovery. Please read "A 
Lewis Carroll Scrapbook" 
on page 1 6. 

After a short break, 
Donald J. Gray, who is one 
of the premier doyens of 
Carroll studies, having 
edited both Norton Critical 
editions, '° gave an informal 
and academic-jargon free 
talk, "more like a conver- 
sation", laced with his gentle 
good humor, on the state of 
Carrollian Studies. The se- 
cond edition of the Norton 

came out a decade ago, and he "has had a ten-year 
recuperation". Were he to be asked to do a third edition, he 
mused, what are the salient and most important studies that 
have emerged over the last decade? 

From published books to the hundreds of disser- 
tations and abstracts he reviews, a few trends have emerged. 

New biographical insights. Although Morton 
Cohen's "definitive" work came out in 1995, Gray reported 
that the work of Karoline Leach "fills out my idea of 
Dodgson" as a man possessed of an orthodox interest in 

Photography. Books such as Carol Mavor's 1995 
study Pleasures Taken: Performances of Sexuality and 
Loss in Victorian Photographs show the context of 
Dodgson's interest in bodies as aesthetic, and Gray men- 

'° 1971 and 1992 



tioned studies such as Donald Rackin's" and James Kin- 
caid's.'^ Dodgson emerges as a "more various and more 
complicated" individual, of major significance to a different 
artistic area. 

Professor Gray commented on the initial image in 
Pleasures Taken, one of the infant Roland Barthes being 
held by his mother, as an example of "what we see in an 
image is what we put into it." Dodgson is seen as a composer 
of images, not a simple voyeur. Photography is an 
intransitive medium, one that is not a simple through- 
pathway to the motives of the photographer. 

Alice in context. Dodgson's views of language as 
a puzzle or a system have 
of late come to the fore. 
Citing Lecercle'^ Reich- 
ertz'^ Sigler'\ and Pol- 
hemus'*. Gray has also 
noted an increase in in- 
terest in the Alice books 
in context of other 
Victorian children's lit- 
erature. What was it like 
for the children who 
were Alice's first read- 
ers? What books did 
Dodgson read as a child? 
Alice as cult- 
ural fable. Studies build- 
ing on Taylor's'^ theory 
of Alice as a roman a clef 
of the Oxford Movement 
include the work of Jo 
Elwyn Jones and J. 
Francis Gladstone'* (did 
you "know" that the Wal- 
rus was a portmanteau of 
Wal ter Pater and John 

' ' Donald Rackin, "Mind over matter: sexuality and where the 'body 
happens to be' in the Alice books" in Lefkovitz, Lori (ed.). Textual 
Bodies: changing boundaries of literary representation, 1997 

'^ James R. Kincaid, Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian 
Literature, 1994 

'^ Philosophy of Nonsense: The Intuitions of Victorian Nonsense 
Literature by Jean-Jacques Lecercle, 1994 

''' The Making of the Alice Books : Lewis Carroll's Uses of Earlier 
Children's Literature by Ronald Reichertz, 1997 

'^ Alternative Alices: Visions and Revisions of Lewis. Carroll's 
Alice Books : An Anthology by Carolyn Sigler (ed.), 1997 

'^ Robert Polhemus, "Lewis Carroll and the child in Victorian fiction" 
in The Columbia History of the English Novel, John Richett, (ed.), 

'^ The White Knight : A Study ofC. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) 
by Alexander L. Taylor, 1976 

'* The Red King 's Dream, or, Lewis Carroll in Wonderland, 1997; 
The Alice Companion, 1 998 

Carroll and Victorian culture. Gray noted that 
today's reading lists for doctoral students are very different 
from those of even a decade ago. While the "stock" of certain 
authors has remained high (e.g. Dickens, George Eliot) or 
has risen (e.g. Wilkie Collins, Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker), 
that of others has fallen (Thackeray, Carlyle, Trollope, 
Meredith). Elizabeth Browning now has more studies than 
Robert; Christina Rossetti more than Dante Gabriel, but 
Carroll is always a constant. 

Gray here extemporized on an appealing idea set 
out by James Buzard in a recent essay in Raritan,^^ that "we 
have adopted the Victorian culture, but we have changed the 
valences." In other words, what was positive in their day 
(such as The Empire) is now seen as negative and the "bad" 
in their time (sexuality, the anarchic) is now seen as "good". 

He concluded by saying that the Alice books, once 
seen as whimsical escape literature, are now accepted more 
as a portrait of the Victorian period, where self- 
subversiveness, disorder and undecideability prevail, with 
prescient nods to feminism, structuralism, and modernism. 

In the absence of Chairman Joel Birenbaum, the 
Nominating Committee proposed the following slate for 
election at the Fall meeting: 
President: Alan Tannenbaum 
Vice-President: Mark Burstein (inc.) 
Secretary: Cindy Watter (inc.) 
Treasurer: Fran Abeles (inc.) 

New Board members: Angelica Carpenter, Patt Griffin, 
Matt Demakos, Andrew Sellon. 

We then moseyed over to the Cotsen Children's 
Library, inside the Firestone Library, for a reception. 

This center, a "living library" bequest from Lloyd 
Cotsen, is a fascinating and profoundly moving story in 
itself, one that is told in depth in Patience and Fortitude: 

Stephanie Lovett with her daughter Lucy at the Cotsen 

August Imholtz presenting TTLG to Dr. Immel 

A Roving Chronicle of Book People, Book Places, and 
Book Culture (HarperCollins, 2001), Nicholas Basbanes' 
second volume of his bibliophilic trilogy which began with 
A Gentle Madness. 

The collection consists of eighty-thousand child- 
ren's books, some of them extremely rare, in thirty-six lang- 

The books were all visible, behind glass walls 
towering several stories and "peopled" with enormous 
stuffed animals. There was also a "hands-on" area for 
children, made to look like a giant book, with Humpty 
Dumpty poised on the top of the spine. Inside were inter- 
active "discovery games" based on Alice, the Narnia tales, 
and Charlotte's Web. 

Beside the hors d'oeuvres, wine, and a frenzied 
collectors' corner, there were two semiformal presen- 
tations. The first was of an exquisitely bound, wooden-and- 
glass-boxed volume of the Cheshire Cat edition^" of TTLG 
presented by the LCSNA in memory of Alexander Wain- 
wright, curator of the Parrish Collection of Victorian Novel- 
ists for so many years, as well as a Founding Member and 
great friend to our Society. The binding, by George Walker, 
was an intaglio White Knight (the chess piece) on the front 
and Mr. Wainwright's initials on the back (coincidentally 
the same as a certain book: A. W.). Accepting were Dr. Andrea 
Immel, director of the Cotsen, and Dr. Ben Primer, Univer- 
sity archivist. 

Now, here we were in the midst of the Parrish 
collection, whose holdings are the stuff of legend, and whose 
photography book had just come out. After a long day, at 
long last, finally some mention was made of this! Dr. Peter 
Bunnell, Professor of the History of Photography and the 
writer of the introduction to the volume, gave a short talk 
on the trials, tribulations, and ultimate success of getting 
the Taylor/Wakeling book printed. 

We thanked our hosts, found our ways home by 
methods fair or foul, and concluded the banquet by. . . 

'^ Raritan: a quarterly review (Rutgers University, NJ) ^°see KL 55 for a series of articles on the Cheshire Cat Press 

A Fish Story 

Dr. Adele Cammarata 
Palermo, Italy 

Alice is a fish. 

Well, indeed it is in Italian: an alice [ah-leet-chay] 
is a sardine, a small saltwater fish. In English, "Alice" is 
just a female first name, most famous because of Lewis 
Carroll's immortal stories. 

Of course you remember that in the first of the 
Alice books, originated during a boat trip along the River 
Isis, there are plenty of fishes, big and small, especially in 
the poems,' and that water is one of the first settings in the 

Observe "How doth the little crocodile"; the Pool 
of Tears ("As she said these words her foot slipped, and in 
another moment, splash! she was up to her chin in salt water. 
Her first idea was that she had somehow fallen into the sea"); 
the Gryphon and Mock Turtle's school "at the bottom of the 
sea"; and, above all, the Lobster Quadrille. After this 
delightful song the Mock Turtle and the Gryphon try to 
explain to Alice the right etymology of some fish names: 
whiting, soles and eels. There's another pun with the word 
porpoise and, a few pages later, the poem " 'Tis the voice of 
the Lobster". 

This may well be a curious coincidence: we know 
that the story of Alice was first invented and told during a 
boat trip in which water was — obviously — one of the most 
essential elements. But let me show you that the very name 
"Alice" is strictly connected with (salt) water and fishes. 

This idea first came to my mind two years ago while 
I was studying for my thesis comparing eight Alice Italian 
translations. I was examining the Lobster Quadrille and its 
Italian versions, and suddenly I began to read Alice's name 
as if it were Italian, and to think of the little fish with this 
name. Then I searched for the etymology of the Italian noun 
alice and this is what I found: 

ah'ce lat. HALicE(M) dal gr. alyke mare o alykis (=lat. halica) 
salamoia, che trae da als sale, mare. (Cfi*. Alga, Aligusta, 
Sale). - Nome di una ninfa marina dell'antica mitologia, 
ed anche di un pesciolino di mare, detto pure acciuga e 
sardella, che suole conservarsi sotto sale.^ 

"Alice" may be derived from the name of one of 
the Nereids, sea-nymphs who were the fifty daughters of 
Nereus and Doris, as I found in the book Miti e leggende di 
Sicilia,^ though I could not find a specific myth or legend 
for this nymph. The Nereids were fi-iendly and helpfiil to 
sailors, and were thought to have the ability to prophesize. 
Her name was probably A Air] (Halie or Halia, meaning 
"salty"), quoted both in the Iliad and in Hesiod's Theogony, 
where she is described as "dark-eyed and lovely". 

In the Lessico Universale Italiano Treccani said 
something similar, and, on the next page, I also found alichero 
meaning "porpoise" (ring any bells?), whose etymology is 
fi-om dAs. dXos "sea" and xoLpos "pig". 

I know that Dodgson couldn't speak Italian. He 
could have known a little bit, as two of his most intimate 

friends were Italian: the Rossettis, Dante Gabriel and his 
sister Christina. However, as we have seen, Alice is a name 
of Greek origins, passed through Latin, and Dodgson had 
studied Latin and Greek. Moreover, Alice Liddell's father, 
Dean Henry Liddell, knew Ancient Greek as well as English, 
being the co-author of the famous Greek-English Lexicon. 

In my Latin vocabularies I've found quite a few 
words related to aAs theme: Halicyae, Halyciensis, halieus, 
halieutica, halieuticus, hallec... 

The Oxford English Dictionary also was useftil to 
my researching words related to aAs, and these are the more 
significant results: 

alimon [Apparently a. Gr. dAi/jor'a shrubby plant growing on 
the shore, perh. salt- wort,' Liddell & Scott; prop. neut. (sc. ^irrdj 
of <2^//o5 maritime. Confused by early herbalists with Gr dAi^os 
'banishing hunger,' whence this attribute ascribed to the plant.] 
A plant fabled to dispel hunger; perh. Atriplex halimus of the 

alisma [a. L., a. Gr. a^cr/zo a water-plant mentioned by Dioscor.] 
A genus of aquatic endogenous plants, the type of N.O. 
Alismacece; applied esp. to the species A. Plantago, a plant 
common in ponds and ditches. 

Halicore [f Gr. dA,dAi- sea + /r4377 maiden, lit 'mermaid'.] Name 
of the genus of Sirenians, found in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, 
to which the Dugong belongs. 

halieutic [ad. L. halieuticus, a. Gr. aXievTiKO, f. aAievrrf^v^tx, 
f dAieveLuXo fish, i. oAsthe sea.] A. adj. Of or belonging to 

haligraphy \i.Qx.aAs, dAi- salt + -ypa<pi a writing.] A treatise 
or dissertation on the nature and quality of salts. 

halimous [f. Gr. aAipos of or belonging to the sea (f dAs sea) + 
-ous.] Of, or belonging to, the sea; marine; maritime. Also: of, or 
belonging to salt; saline; salt. 

As you may easily notice, these terms have been 
recorded in Greek Lexicons compiled in the 18* and 19"' 
centuries: among them Liddell and Scott's. 

Mark Burstein, in his To Catch a Bandersnatch, 
an article which appeared some years ago on the Web'', made 
lots of etymological hypotheses about the origin of her 
name, but, rather surprisingly, does not mention the "fishy" 

The original Alice, the girl to whom Carroll told his immortal tale, 
was the daughter of the Dean of Christ Church, Henry George 
Liddell, co-editor of the foremost Greek lexicon of his day. He 
named his child Alice, a name of unquestionably Greek derivation, 
although its exact source is unknown. Speculation runs through 
dAisialis), "abundantly"; dAr]6eia(aletheia), "truth"; dAvcrcrco 
(alysso), "to wander in mind" [akin to the Latin hallucinor]; 
dAAiaros {allistos), inexorable; dAAos {alios), another; dAaoros 
(alastos), unforgettable; Aides (lithos), "stone"; Aisl Aiacrrjilis 
or lisse), "smooth"; Avacra (lussa), "madness" {or dAvacra 
(alussa), "curing madness"}; or perhaps dATJ'iov{alion), "a land 
of wandering" (Wanderland?). 

We may regard Carroll's setting oUhis girl in these books as an 
"inexorable, unforgettable, smooth wandering in the mind — 
another madness — a Wanderland, abundant with the stone truth." 
Bull digress... 

Rather hallucinatory, isn't it? Well, I must admit 

that when I tried to retrace the etymology of "Ahce" (the 
name, not the ItaHan noun) I was faced with contrasting 
hypotheses. I started with checking the ItaHan name "AHce", 
reported to be the female version of A less io (from Greek 
dAe^eiu meaning "to ward off') though we have Alessia as 
well, "of uncertain origins". Then I tried to check English 
versions, inferring Alice to be equivalent to Adelaide or 
Adele (that is also my name, incidentally), a name of 
Germanic origins meaning "of splendid nobility" and to 
which another name, Alison {i.e. Alice's son), is related in 
all its various spelling {Allison, Alyson, Allyson). 

Another etymology was suggested to me by Mr. 
Jan-Jurien Kosma, who related Alice to a flower. If you only 
listen to this name, don't read it, you'll hear a-lis: French 
sounding, isn't it? It can remind us of lys, lily, or of Alyxia, 
the name of a plant family, or of Alyssum, the name of an 
herb used against rabies. See OED again: 
alyssum Bot. [mod.L. for alysson (Pliny), a. Gr. aAvaaoi^name 
of a plant, perh. neut. of adj. dAuaaos curing (canine) madness,' 
f. a priv. + Auaaa madness.] A genus of Cruciferous plants, a 
yellow-flowered species of which {A. saxatile) popularly known 
as Gold-dust, is a favourite spring flower in English gardens. 

So much in a name, maybe too much for a little 
child. Is it too nonsensical to suppose that such a peculiar 
author as Lewis Carroll (who was certainly intrigued with 
names' etymology, as his pseudonym demonstrates) could 
have put forth a sort of inside joke on Alice's name? 

May I go further? 

In Chapter X of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
you will find the pseudo-etymological derivation of whiting. 
The passage contains an absurd pun upon the word whiting, 
used first to mean the fish^ then in reference to white- 

As with most of the other puns m Alice, translating 
this joke into other languages could be a difficult problem 
(putting it mildly). For Italian translators, this one is not so 
impossible after all, but I have found that Italian translations 
of this passage can add an extra (involuntary?) inside joke 
about Alice's name. 

Literal translation of whiting (the fish) should be 
merlano, merlango, merluzzo, or nasello. 

In this passage, due to the need of re-creating a pun, 
the word whiting has been variously translated as merluzzo 
(merlin)'', nasello (hake)^ or bianchetto (whitebait)^, and 
the pun is made upon similar words in Italian, not always 
referring to whitewash (e.g. nasello-naso, punning about 
"nose"). Note, by the way, that whiting in the sense of 
whitewash can easily be translated as bianchetto, or bianco 
di Spagna. 

Let's have a look at these different versions of 
whiting in Italian: 

bianchetto... 3. spec, alplurale, nome regionale di pesci minuti 
da frittura: secondo le region!, i piccoli delle acciughe e delle 
sardine o quelli del nasello'" 

nasello... (A/er/«c/M5 vulgaris) Pesce teleosteo dell'ordine 
Anacantini, famiglia Gadidi, chiamato anche merluzzo, merlano, 
iovo, pesce prete ecc." 

Now have a look at the word acciuga, a synonym 
of alice: 

Le giovani a(cclughe) prive di pigmento si pescano in gran numero 
e si vendono col nome di bianchetti^^ 

So, if I'm right, the famous whiting could become 
an alice in Italian. 

Is this situation impossible to imagine? Let me 
restate the points I have made. 

1. Alice Liddell was the daughter of a very important 
Greek scholar. 

2. Her name may derive from the ancient Greek dXs, 
dXos "sea" and its compounds referring to sea, fishing 
and salt. 

3. Alice is also the name of a small fish (anchovy or 
sardine) in Italian, and its etymology is correlated to 
dXs, dAos "sea" and to a marine nymph of ancient 

4. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) was 
unquestionably intrigued with language and etymology. 

5. His masterpiece is filled with lots of fishes, small 
and big. 

6. In one of the parody-poems in ^fF there's a pun about 
the double meaning of the word whiting. 

7. The word whiting can be translated into Italian in 
various ways, and in its secondary meaning it can be ren- 
dered as bianchetto. 

8. Bianchetto is also the name (often plural, bianchetti) 
of small fishes of various species, among them the 

9. Acciuga is a synonym for alice. 

10. Hence, Carroll may have used the term whiting as 
an inside joke. 

This may well be just a coincidence, but it could 
also be a good demonstration of how translation may trans- 
form a text. Translation connects the words of a text (its 
real matter, and so relevant in Alice) to other words of the 
target language, suggesting other perspectives on the original 

But this is another story, and deserves more skilled 
minds than mine. 

' Harry Levin, in ''^Wonderland Ktvisxitd" [Jabberwocky: Issue 5 
(Autumn 1970)], insists on the fact that "So many of her poems, as 
Alice retrospectively realizes, have been about fishes or other forms 
of sea food... Doubtless the most memorable of these piscatories is 
the affecting ballad of the Oysters' betrayal, 'The Walrus and the 
Carpenter'." [though this latter is part of Through the Looking- 

^ Ottorino Pianegiani, Vocabolario etimologico della lingua 
italiana, 1 907. "alice: Latin halice(m) from Greek alyke sea, or alykjs 
{=Latin halica) pickle, deriving from als salt, sea. (See Alga 
{Seaweed}, Aligusta {Lobster}, 5a/e {Salt}) -Name ofa sea nymph 
of the ancient mythology, as well as a little sea fish, also known as 
anchovy or sardine, usually pickled." 

^ Salvino Greco, Dario Flaccovio Editore, 1993. 

'' Originally written in 1970, posted to the Web in 1996 and revised 
upon occasion since. See bander.html. 

* See Penguin Hutchinson Reference Library: whiting 1 n any of 
various marine fishes eaten as food; esp. a common European fish 
{Merlangus merlangus) related to the cod 

* See Penguin Hutchinson Reference Library: whiting 2 n washed 
and ground chalk used esp. as a pigment and in rubber compounding 
and paper coating. 

^D'Amicotr., Longanesi, 1994 and Caranotr.,Einaudi, 1978 

* Bossi tr., Bompiani, 1963; Giglio tr., Rizzoli 1966; and Graffi tr, 
Garzanti, 1989 


'" Devoto-Oli, Nuovo Vocabolario Illustrato della Lingua Italiana: 
"bianchetto: 3 .especially plural, regional noun, small fishes usually 
eaten fried: according to the region, the young of the anchovy, the 
sardine or the hake." 

" Lessico Universale Italiano, Treccani: "nasello {Merlucius 
vulgaris) teleost fish of Anacantinis, of the Gadidis family, also 
known as merluzzo, merlano, lovo, pesce prete, etc." 

'^ Enciclopedia Pomba, UTET: "Young colourless anchovy are 
caught in great numbers and are sold with the name of bianchetti.'' 

What's for Dissert? 

August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

Following is a brief review of recent "scholarship" 
reported in Digital Dissertations (http://wwwlib.umi.coni/ 

Medusa s tails and Leonardo 's heads: Fantasies of anal 
creation in J 9"" century literature and psychoanalytic 
theory, by Denise Fulbrook, Ph.D. dissertation, Duke 
University, 2001. "This dissertation uses the literary 
landscape of 19"' century Britain to challenge Freudian 
fantasies of creation and sexual difference, and to document 
the significance of the female anus within a particular literary 
field. Focusing on the work and critical legacies of George 
Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell, Charles Dickens and Lewis Carroll 
as well as on the life and legacy of the Medusa and Leonardo 
da Vinci in both Freud and Victorian England, (she) discusses 
female anality in both synchronic and diachronic terms." 

Wanderlad beyond the looking-glass: The dream worlds 
of Lewis Carroll and James Joyce, by Daphne Marie Shafer, 
Ph.D. dissertation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 
2001. "Through the use of both female and male characters, 
Carroll and Joyce search for their own identities and 
discover the female within..." 

Al sur del espejo: Carroll y la inversion de la maravilla y 
el sinsentido en la poesia chilena del Sigh XX, by Luis 
Andres Figuerora, Ph.D. dissertation, Washington 
University, 2000. "This project studies the presence of 
Carroll in the works of five twentieth century Chilean poets." 

Victorian myopia and the aesthetics of the illustrated text 
(Alfred, Lord Tennyson, John William Waterhouse, Lewis 
Carroll, John Tenniel, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sidney 
Paget), by Joseph Michael Mysliwiec, Ph.D. dissertation, 
Kent State University, 2000. "Each case study reveals a 
different degree of aesthetic myopia, ranging from complete 
distortion to astigmatism, and multiple illustrations 
demonstrate these gradations. All three of the illustrated 
texts examined in this investigation are typically Victorian 
in that they suffer fi-om a perceptual double bind: the mutual 
exclusion between the texts and the illustrations is 
symptomatic of a hyper self-conscious art work." [Short 

Sexual fictions: Reading sexuality in Victorian narrative 
(Charles Dickens, Wilkie Collins, Lewis Carroll, Anthony 
Trollope), by Janet Marie Restak, Ph.D. dissertation, 
Claremont Graduate University, 2000. Chapter four of this 
dissertation views "the nonsense Alice encounters... as 
emblematic of "queer" resistance. The difficulties Alice 
experiences with body and identity and the multiple readings 
that interpret the nonsense as sexuality suggest the limits 
of "queer" sexuality." [Queer indeed.] 

In pursuit of childhood: Lewis Carroll's photography and 
the Victorian visual imagination, by Diane Margaret 
Waggoner, Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 2000. This 
dissertation argues "that Dodgson's photographs mark a 
crucial moment in the visual history of modem childhood" 
and further asserts that "Dodgson attempted to control the 
relationship between spectatorship, sexuality, and the 
display of the nude girl's body to insure that his repres- 
entations of nude girls were representations of innocent 

Through the looking glass: Mirroring the evolution of 
feminist theory in the criticism on Lewis Carroll's Alice 
books, by Birgit M. Schmidt-Rosemann, M.A., Angelo State 
University, 2001. "Research concluded that because of the 
Alice books' unique ability to inspire so many different 
feminist readings ever since their publication, criticism on 
the books can be seen as a barometer for the development 
of feminist theory." 

Beauty and the body in the fiction of Charlotte Bronte, 
Lewis Carroll, and Sarah Grand, by Cecile Elizabeth 
Kandl, Ph.D. dissertation, Lehigh University, 2001. "By 
drawing on Michel Foucault's theories of power and 
resistance, I demonstrate that various and ever-shifting 
power matrices disseminated contradictory information to 
women about their bodies." [Foucault's pendulum swings 

Mavericks of Meaning: Among the Mondegreens 

Chloe Nichols 

I. "7 don't believe there's an atom of meaning in it! '" 

says Alice at the Knave of Hearts' trial, using a figure of 
speech popular in her day and for quite a long time afterward. 
That figure performed the useful semantic trick of viewing 
abstract perception as matter composed of predictable, 
separable particles, like the elements — a kind of quantum 
theory meaning. Shakespeare may have been thinking along 
these lines when he called tiny erratic fairies "atomies". 
Certainly the word is used by a character whose mindset 
qualifies him for Wonderland - Mercutio. If Carroll is 
supposing meaning to be slippery in this way — configurable, 
disfigurable, re-configurable — his twisted lyric songs \nAW 
go a long way to reinforce his supposition. There is not one 
entirely original song in AW. They are all twisted forms, or 
at least resonances, of something above ground. In all of 
them. Wonderland meanings collide, connect, and 
disconnect with lyrics of the upper world, explosively 
displacing reader attention far fi-om the narrative path. The 
atoms — like a troupe of Moroccan acrobats — assemble 
themselves into a bomb. That bomb will interrupt meaning 
so vividly that, for an instant, it eludes the reader's grasp. 

But why dive again mto the so-much-quoted, so- 
well-loved, so-self-sufficient lyrics of Wonderland? 

Well, for a long time I have thought that with Carroll 
studies, pay dirt is in the details — like the devil, and that 
overworked host of better angels laboring to making things 
clearer. For one thing, Carroll is a detailist, someone more 
likely to describe the innards of a watch than the landscape 
of Wonderland. His details have a way of expanding without 
notice. The little egg which Alice decides to buy and then 
chases through the shelves of the sheep's shop soon turns 
into mighty Humpty Dumpty, leaving us to wonder what 
would have happened if she had bought two eggs, as she first 
intended. Carrollian details have that way of proliferating, 
connecting, and transmogrifying meanings — ^the more subtly 
because they themselves are ordinary enough to escape 
notice. They arefaits accomplis in hiding. 

Such details also appear in the soundalike phrases 
that occur spontaneously in place of desired and familiar 
Victorian formulas — songs or poems — and convert them 
into bizarre isotopes of themselves. "How Doth the Little" 
is an example. This is not a pure parody, done in the careful 
way that "You Are Old, Father William" parodies Robert 
Southey, or even a conscious spin-off like "Twinkle, Twinkle 
Little Bat". Its images and crafting must be considered as 
self-generating. The crocodile is too majestic and detached 
to mock the bee, and parody must contain some satire, must 
in some sense mock fi-om a subordinate position. Further, 
the text makes it clear that to the speaker, Alice, her words 
are an unwelcome surprise and that they erase what she had 
intended to say next. They blot out a piece of the ostensible 
narrative. "T'm sure those are not the right words,' . . . and 
her eyes filled with tears." The poem just pops out, by itself 

This particular recitation alarms Alice so much that 
she supposes she is losing her identity — a clue to the 
possessive jealousy she feels (along with other Wonderland 

characters) for her own utterance. A rift in the story has 
opened, and she may fall inside. In her rendition, although 
the syllabic pattern is equivalent, few would call this merely 
a feasible mis-hearing. It is, rather, a sort of mis-speaking, 
meant by Carroll to reflect not on the original (the normal 
parodic relationship) but on its own source — the altered 
Alice. I will come back to this poem later. 

Since I cannot find a better term for this narrative 

dilemma, let me stop to introduce a term I mean to use 

without much precision — the mondegreen, a mis-heard / 

mis-spoken passage of song lyrics. The following history 

of the term comes fi-om w^ww. 


Mondegreen: A word or phrase resulting from a misinterpretation 

of a word or phrase that has been heard [but not read]. Coined 

by British author S[ylvia] Wright. "Mondegreens can be found in 

every area of the spoken word," writes (Gavin) Edwards, "from 

the record buyer who asks for a copy of the Queen single 

'Bohemian Rap City' (It's 'Bohemian Rhapsody') to the 

schoolchild who is convinced that the Pledge of Allegiance begins 

' lied the pigeons to the flag. '" . . . [From] ... the nursery rhymes 

you heard on the playground. . .to crooning with the love songs on 

the radio, you have been misinterpreting and repeating. . . Chances 

are you have experienced mondegreens in your language." 

n. The word experienced radk&s a valuable point. The 

mondegreen comes with a certain start of recognition, 

sometimes, as in Alice's case, a substantial joh. The fact 

that two separate meanings joined only by sound have 

collided, rather like atomic particles, apparently gives the 

mind pause. Maybe it short-circuits the "grammar-site" 

which organizes language in the brain. The website author 

goes on, "The results are often much more fascinating than 

the origmal. The mondegreen effect is not lunited to lyrics 

[or poetry] either. More than one school librarian has seen 

distraught pupils complaining of not bemg able to locate 

the book mentioned in their class: Charles Darwin's seminal 

work "The Oranges and Peaches." 

Perhaps because of this short lifespan of the real 
thing, a certain latitude has developed about what can be 
labeled a mondegreen. Many charming intentional 
fabrications have been allowed to crowd under the same 
umbrella. They turn into such pleasant jokes. Families repeat 
their own like mantras. In fact, the intentional mondegreen 
in literature, even in extended form, is a recognized and 
successflil technique. It certainly gives the same sensation 
as the real thing.' 

The origin of the term is mteresting. "It all started 

' Another term "Anguish Languish", itself a twisted rendering of 
"English Language", meaning a deliberate substitution of homonyms 
and phrases, is also in common use. The term was coined by Howard 
Chase in his 1 956 book of the same name, from which his masterpiece 
"Ladle Red Rotten Hut" ("Little Red Riding Hood") is widely known. 
Your editor confesses to a decades-long affair with this medium, and 
has collected examples and written in it extensively. His version of 
the Lord's Prayer was published in Willard Espy's A Children's 
Almanac of Words at Play (Clarkson Potter, 1 982), and his version 
of the Pledge of Allegiance ("High pressure regions, toothy flack, 
often your nicest dates suffer miracles...") is regarded as a classic 
in some circles. Correspondence is welcome. 

when a courageous woman named Sylvia Wright confessed 
to mishearing the following words of a Scottish folk song: 
'They hae slain the Earl of Moray / And laid him on the 
green,' as... 'And Lady Mondegreen'. Imagine Wright's 
disappointment when she discovered that there was no Lady 
Mondegreen who valiantly gave her life to be with her love. 
She wrote her story in the November 1954 issue oi Harper s 
Magazine, and ever since we have labeled these occurrences 
in honor of Lady Mondegreen 's sacrifice." Two outstanding 
sites among many archives of mondegreens can be found 
on the internet at and columnist Jon 

"Mondegreen" is no ordinary word; it carries 
mythic freight, it translates literally as "green world" or a 
literary term for a now-lost earthly paradise. Also, since 
the unfortunate Earl is soon to be on the other side of the 
grass, she is something of a death figure. The meaning I 
concoct for this figure is some mix of Shakespeare's Titania, 
Persephone Queen of Hades, and that Mother Nature from 
the margarine commercial whom it is Not Nice to Fool. 

I know, of course, that my creations are random 
fabrications. This is not Borges' fictional universe in which 
an unearthed encyclopedia actually creates the world it 
describes.^ Finally, then, meaning has been unleashed by an 
accidental glitch in its transmission. Then, unguided by 
speaker-intent, on its own it has gotten up to an interesting 
kind of mischief It has become a subject, not an object. 
Lewis Carroll's fictional example, the Little Crocodile, 
governs and depresses Alice to the point of questioning her 
own self-knowledge. Alice assumes that if she said what 
she didn't intend, she must not know who she is. That is, 
Carroll has magnified the mondegreen poof! exponentially. 
Unleashed language is not only governing speakers, but 
taking a hand in forming them. Of course, the shock for 
Alice is lessened because she does know, or has known, the 
words correctly. Yet the reader experiences that frill poof!. 

Carroll's song detaches meaning from the character 
who should normally control it, and allows it to proceed 
under its own steam. In some ways the transmission of 
mondegreens is more interesting than the short-lived 
original moment. Naturally, a pure mondegreen cannot 
survive the joh of recognition. The speaker has to believe 
temporarily but completely that the term is correct, and 
when the discrepancy is spotted — it is already, like a lovely 
firework, over. It may transform into a charming joke in 
wide circulation, like "The ants are my friends" ("The 
answer, my friends") or "The girl with colitis goes by" for 
"The girl with kaleidoscope eyes", but the original spark 
has vanished. However — this is the important part — for one 
instant two meanings had lived side by side, joined only by 
mutual sound. And the speaker had lost control of both. 

^ Ms. Nichols refers to the Jorge Luis Borges short story "Tlon, Uqbar, 
Orbis Tertius" from El jardin de senderos que se bifurcan {The 
Garden of the Forking Paths), 1941, collected in Ficciones 
(Fictions), 1 944 

in. The great political and comic cartoonist Walt Kelly 

was //?e American adept of intentional mondegreens, whether 

brief or extended, par excellence. He created in a mythical 

Okefenokee swamp, around a well-intentioned 'possum and 

a mob of ill-assorted friends, the comic Pogo, "an innovative 

strip that carries a variety of social and personal messages". 

(Brucker)^ His songs — especially his Christmas songs — 

brought a zany exuberance to the circus atmosphere of his 

fictional Okefenokee Swamp. If Kelly had produced nothing 

but "Deck Us All With Boston Charlie", the extended 

mondegreen on "Deck the Halls with Boughs of Holly", he 

would have earned a place in history. But many a secular 

song, especially if tinged with nonsense, received from him 

the most far-reaching and inspired changes — I think — in 

English. Critic Carl Brucker again: 

He similarly acknowledges the help of children whose imperfect 

pronunciation ("Give us to stay our daily bread") inspired numerous 

original phrasings [mondegreens]. Kelly's appreciation for the 

accidental underscores his desire for liberation from conformity, 

his desire to maintain a childlike spontaneity. Thus, when Kelly 

writes parodies such as "Good King Sourkraut looked out/ On 

his feet uneven", he is simultaneously deflating our unsceptical 

belief in the reliability of language and celebrating its liberating 


This liberating unpredictability is what 
mondegreens are all about. Kelly made an annual Christmas 
event of new versions of the carol, though his catalog of 
carols by no means ends there. They are all apt and charming, 
and much enhanced by the masterfiil art work showmg their 
effect on Pogo characters. He captures the best visual 
response on record to the mondegreen poo/?. For many years 
Kelly produced new versions of his carols every year. This 
mondegreen-string captures a most delicate thread of the 
original jolt. No one else has ever achieved that. Throughout 
his long popularity — speaking in the mid-to-late fifties and 
early sixties — Kelly's sound-alike Christmas carols were 
eagerly-awaited annual events, presented with all the 
ceremony of Christmas gifts. His characters, whose norm- 
ally lackadaisical pursuits tend to scatter them, suddenly 
energize, collect, and struggle to remember the words and 
assemble into choirs and bands. Their behavior, its vuber- 
abilities, antagonisms, affections, and energies — suggests 
the folk of Wonderland." As in Wonderland, phrases are hotly 
debated, and correct wording is considered all-important. 
Kelly works to give his songs validity. Banewort 
(a naked brat in a bowler who appears in Prehysterical Pogo) 
is scolded for twisting the words to "Deck us all with Boston 
Charlie" (rendering it as "Tickle salty boss anchovy") — 
convincing the reader that Kelly's lengthy distortion is in 
fact the correct original. Grundoon, the baby groundhog, 
gets the same treatment when he sings in baby talk. Kelly 

^ Brucker, Carl. "Walt Kelly's Pogo: The Eye of the Whole Man." 
Studies in American Humor. 2.3 (1984). Also 

" Walt Kelly's numerous other uses of the Wonderland characters 
are enumerated in Much Ado: The POGOfenokee Trivia Book, 
Eclipse Books, 1988,/?.36. 

transformed many carols, but wisely avoiding the deeply 
religious ones. Perhaps he gave himself a head start by 
favoring carols already located in the neighborhood of 
nonsense — "Deck the Halls" ("Deck us all with Boston 
Charlie"), "The Twelve Days of Christmas" ("Conifers Stay 
of Crispness") , "Good King Wenceslaus (Sauerkraut)", 
"God Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen" ("Mary Jettamints"). Most 
Kelly fans rank "Deck Us AH" at the top. For the record, 
although the lyrics of "Deck us all with Boston Charlie" 
went through many annual transformations, by 1954 they 
were fairly stable: 

Deck us all with Boston Charlie, Walla Walla, Wash., 
and Kalamazoo. 

Nora's freezin' on the trolley, Swaller dollar cauliflower, 

Don't we know archaic barrel? Lullaby, lillaboy, Louisville Lou ? 

Trolley Molly don't love Harold, Boola Boola Pensacoola 

What distinguishes this panel — in which the 
usually-feuding main characters gathered for once in peace 
and good will — is that 

j-^ *^ *t3 
/Vy^r Wg <HOWUSCHA\C 8AaQBi?mUBY,UlUB0y,l0UlSVllie toil- 
^^MUUA'BMOO/ y-|^-, 

the frame narrative 
which on one hand 
enacts a true' monde- 
green, on the other 
explores alternate 
meanings. Grundoon 
believes his baby talk 
version is correct. But 
Churchy LaFemme, 
the rationalist turtle, 
rejects it: "He don't 
make sense." This 
validates the central 
lyrics which follow. 

Then, after a typical and distracting quarrel, the actual, 
harmonizing, literary mondegreen — the song — takes place, 
and its length stretches the poof, far enough to make the 
enjoyment rational. Finally, as Howland Owl, Pogo, and Miz 
Woodchuck (carrying Grundoon) walk away, the intellectual 
owl offers his critique of reason, "Every year I sing it an' 
every year I sing it, an' I sing it an' I sing it — an' still I don't 
know what it mean." Then Pogo offers the only possible 
answer, the non-rational one, "When Grundoon kiss his ma 
goodnight and say 'GBXT'...d'you ask him what he mean, 
Miz Groun'chuck?"..." "Shucks, no", Miz Woodchuck 
replies. Thus, the meaning released by the mondegreen in 
the panel explodes into two subsequent meanings — the 
unintelligible baby talk, which is perceived as emotionally 
meaningful, and the owl's intelligent repudiation of meaning. 
Considerable power is packed into the interlocked 
mondegreens of "Deck Us All". Setting aside that Kelly's 
fabrications take advantage of the literary mondegreen's 
right to fudge a bit — he makes it easier by using personal 
and city names — I've got no idea at all what Boston Charlie 
is, but there it is in my head, important, urgent, unident- 
ifiable, vivid as Lady M herself ^ A Boojum, in fact. (I suspect 

^ Some Kelly scholars over the years have posited that "Boston 
Charlie" and other terms in his poem were prison slang. 

that this effect satisfied Carroll as much as it did Kelly). Of 
course, permanently bound to it by association of music 
and long experience, is the flip side, the old shoe, "boughs 
of holly". The new meaning energizes the old not as a parody 
or a reversal, but by the unanticipated contrast between the 
conjunctions of articulation and the disjunctions of 
meaning. Through the process, language is utterly reftising 
its foundational task, conveying fact to intelligence. 
Intelligence can fend for itself. It has to figure out what 
Boston Charlie is and how that works m context, just as it 
had to figure out Lady Mondegreen. 
rv. Like Kelly's, Carroll's literary mondegreens also 
veer into emotionality and away fi-om reason. Alice's twisted 
lyrics may careen madly into new meanings, but they 
underscore delicately the emotional content of the scenes 
they inhabit. All in all, the words are easier to change than 
the tune. This is helpful because Alice's rational mind tends 
toward restramt. Throughout A W, her wish to control them 
steadily increases. Although children's fiction generally 
: ^ . heightens character 

u. «>Ne>ieAtK.> 

emotions, Carroll rarely 
elaborates them, and 
sometimes even ob- 
scures them. For exam- 
ple, a reader must winkle 
out of the previous text 
the fact that Alice is 
feeling crocodilish 
when reciting "How doth 
the little-". Because of 
this, the song goes a long 
way to set the mood. Just 
so, questions of trans- 
formation and yearning 
for stability have emotional content in the Caterpillar scene, 
when the twisted lyric is, "You are Old, Father William". 
Here the altered lyrics are perfectly clear, and we have a 
parody, not in any sense a mondegreen. But the tonal 
influence is as strong as, though different from, the 
"crocodile" influence. Alice is longing for stability, and at 
the same time challenging the authority of a character whose 
character (parental, elderly) does not match its form (cater- 
pillar). Her topsy-turvy poem conveys the mood. 

Lewis Carroll in AW frequently introduces songs 
or rhymes with mondegreen and parodic elements. In all 
cases the original has been definitely identified by critics. 
Whether by parody or mis-speaking, such dangerous source/ 
spinoff transfers of meaning trigger the keenest interest 
among Wonderland characters. Carroll foregrounds them 
by having characters clamor for and/or earnestly criticize 
them. "I'm sure those are not the right words!" — (Alice, 
on "Little Crocodile"). "It is wrong from beginning to end," 
said the Caterpillar decidedly (of "Father William"). "That's 
different from what I used to say when I was a child," says 
the Gryphon (of "Voice of the Lobster"). This gives the 
valuable information that things do change in Wonderland. 


The King of Hearts considers the parody of Alice Gray "the 
most important piece of evidence", while Alice marks her 
return to customary size and independence with the an- 
nouncement, "I don't believe there's an atom of meaning in 

Compared to Lewis Carroll, Walt Kelly treats his 
monde-carols as more isolated and central events in a 
(naturally) endless series of episodes. A cartoon strip works 
that way. They are isolated and emphasized by a more 
jumbled emotional mix among the characters, a rather 
picaresque striving to put the episode together, and 
discussion afterward. But a novel like AW has a more 
demanding construction, building toward a climax. The 
twisted lyrics must work harder and receive less pay. They 
are rarely applauded, but steadily supply the emotional tone 
which cements the strangely-assorted incidents into a whole. 

Martin Gardner in his annotations is fond of calling 
all the twisted lyrics ofAWa clever parody", and of course 
he is right, but that is something like calling a saber-toothed 
tiger an unpleasant animal. There's more in it than annotation 
can cover — ^two points, at least. First, there is the familiar 
Carroll technique of simuhaneous negation. Carroll likes 
to deny with one hand what he affirms with the other. Mass 
executions are mass pardons. A cat's detailed appearance 
matches an equally detailed disappearance. In the same way, 
the twisted import of some "things in quotations" is not so 
much satiric as profoundly negating and raises the suspicion 
that the original was positioned in the text only for purposes 
of subversion. 

The spinoff overpowers the source. 

The second Carrollian effect is also apparent 
here — the ability of the twisted lyric to intrude intimately 
into the text, both shaping it and resonating with other such 
constructions. Notice the foregrounding of "Little 
Crocodile". "Little Busy Bee" was there not with pride of 
place as the parodied original, but only as an entree, so that 
the Carroll version's stultifying nihilism could tonally darken 
the entire prospect of Wonderland to come. And indeed the 
surrounding nightmare text supports this. Alice, remember, 
has grown into a giantess. She is crouched alone in the 
hallway. "She crossed her hands on her lap, as if she were 
saying lessons. . . but her voice sounded hoarse and strange, 
and the words did not come as they used to do." It suggests 
The Exorcist. Immediately afterward, the first of the pool 
of tears is shed — and the term "crocodile tears" is too easily 
accessible for coincidence. The poem recited overkills the 
one forgotten. The crocodile is no counter-bee; he is death 
itself — cold, languid, inert, complacent, watching. This is 
one of the most terrifying poems in English. So sometimes, 
with Carroll, the parody/mondegreen has the power to invade 
and shape text, to escape the quotation marks, far past the 
limit of usual "clever parodies". 

Parodies occurring within Wonderland, as Alice 
gradually acclimates, progressively take on a smoothness 
and finish, though their reach, compared to "Little 
Crocodile" is diminished. However, they are different in 
kind from adult-audience parodies, since the original cannot 

be targeted in the child's fresh viewpoint. The original does 
not exert enough power to pierce the present text and attract 
and attach the parody. In that sense they may be what Susan 
Sontag calls camp — "a parodic perspective on some- 
thing... [not] worth the parody." "Camp," she writes, "sees 
everything in quotation marks." 

Mark Burstein^ has established an underlying link 
in tone and use between Carroll's parody/word-twists and 
James Joyce's, as well as Kelly's. His succinct demon- 
stration of the conscious use of this technique, its devel- 
opment over time, and its freeing effect, lays the groundwork 
for other critics, like Terry Caesar.'' Caesar says, of Joyce's 
parodies, that they create an "inward freedom" which helps 
"inscribe [the narrative] as something beyond all its various 
models" (qtd. in Nunes*), and opens up "the possibility for 
indirect narration by undermining various monocular, direct 
narratives" (Nunes). Such parodies, then, not bound by the 
link of satiric purpose, are free to steer AWs text into 
autonomy — an autonomy recalling the mondegreen release 
of meaning. 

It is obvious that the AW text claims "Father 
William". Though it is a well-crafted, forthright takeoff con- 
nected to its original morality ditty, and distinctly subversive, 
Southey himself does not fit into Wonderland, so that "Father 
William", which does, by that token detaches from its 
paradigm. The detaching energy infuses the entire text, with 
freeing effect. Mood alone would position "Father William" 
in the text. The Caterpillar scene is not emotionally intense, 
only peevish, and the poem has a jolly, matter-of-fact 
quality — no-nonsense nonsense. Too, the poem has 
expertise and wit, and is arguably Carroll's best parody in 
the two Alice novels. It fits into the current moment. Alice 
has challenged an older (if not larger) creature who sees 
itself in a parental role, and the Caterpillar has asserted its 
authority to command her recitation — and administer a mild 
rebuff to the offending young, "or I'll kick you downstairs". 
But the subject matter is so far removed from Wonderland 
as to question applicability, and here is a word-twist soundly 
confined to Sontag's quotation marks. Much the same is 
true of the next parody, "Twinkle, Twinkle." It supports tone 
by reflecting the frenzied gyrations of the tea table, but its 
influence does not extend past the party, its current moment. 

The masterful statements of theme are left for the 
closing examples in AW — ^those songs offered on the sea 
shingle by the Mock Turtle and Alice. Their impact will be 

* "Three Little Maids: Walt Kelly and the Nonsense Tradition" in The 
Walt Kelly Collector s Guide, ed. Steve Thompson. Spring Hollow 
Books, 1988. 

^ Caesar, Terry. "'Impervious to Criticism': Contemporary Parody 
and Trash" SubStance 64 January 20, 2002 (http://substance. lcaes~l_R.html). "Joycing ?dxody.'" James Joyce 
Quarterly. Winter 26 ( 1 989). 

^ Nunes, Mark. "The Eyes/I's Have It: Joyce's Use of Parody in 
'Cyclops'." XIV International James Joyce Symposium. 13 June, 


missed unless we remember what a sublime scene this is. It 
is meant, I think, as one of the multiple bookend scenes, 
balancing and countering in its mild communal peace the 
thrashing, hostile chaos of the Pool of Tears, just as salt 
water can both soothe and sting. The "Little Crocodile", 
which begins the flood by starting tears, by extension, 
generates the mouse's poem about the terror of death in the 
form of "Fury", the cur. 

The shingle, however, provides the only scene of 
Wonderland — both in picture and text — in which Alice 
seems fully to "make one" with her companions. Tenniel's 
drawings show the texture, a curious but loving trio eagerly 
dancing and singing on the featureless stone floor beside 
an indifferent sea. Alice, who had resisted them before, now 
welcomes the suggestion of songs, perhaps because her pity 
for the weeping Turtle has displaced her former detachment, 
or perhaps because school-days stories have formed a sub- 
stantial bond. Alice wants to hear the 
Lobster-Quadrille "very much 
indeed", and it is introduced with 
tenderness and care. She is in the 
center of the performance: "So they 
[these gigantic monstrosities] began 
solemnly dancing round and round 
Alice, every now and then treading on 
her toes when they passed too close. 
. . [normally self-possessed Alice is 
so caught up in the song that she does 
not shy away] . . . while the Mock 
Turtle sang this, very slowly and 
sadly — " There is a deliberate, har- 
monic dignity that surpasses its 
occasion, and all the carnival 
gyrations of Wonderland itself. A 
food to be consumed — ^the Turtle — 
is singing about other food, and yet 
the song ends on a note of poignant 
longing for "the other side". 

Martin Gardner seems aware that The Lobster 
Quadrille ("Will You Walk a Little Faster. . .") is no ordinary 
parody. His annotated edition says that the song ''parodies 
the first line [italics mine] and adopts the meter of Mary 
Howitt's poem 'The Spider and the Fly'." He realizes that 
this "parody" exceeds its object, and in fact it uses the first 
poem as a springboard to make a statement about death far 
distant in tone from the original. In place of a pat poem 
against risk-taking furnished with a distinctive extended 
metaphor and unappealing characters, Carroll has the 
vuherable snail encouraged to see the journey toward death 
as a dance and a mere trip to "another shore". This song 
much contributes to an important counter-current sub-theme 
of immortality at this point. For just here, AW'xs all about 
death. The following scene will see the Jack of Hearts 
condemned to death several times over. The previous scene 
at the Croquet Party had been all about undeserved death 
occurring in sudden chaos — "Off with his head!" Only at 
the end does the King pardon everybody, negating that scene. 

Walt Kelly's Pogo as Alice 

and the Gryphon, early in his passage, repeats the 
reassurance, "They never executes nobody... it's all her 
fancy." Soon Alice will be repeating a song of twisted words, 
"Tis the Voice of the Lobster", in which, again, only the first 
line is parodic. This panther-and-owl poem is so grim that 
the last words are broken off. But this poem is included, as 
with Grundoon's baby talk, so that it can be negated, a process 
which further humanizes this passage. It meets sharp 
rejection, "uncommon nonsense" says the Mock Turtle, and 
"you'd better leave off," says the Gryphon, the only time in 
A W that a song is broken off. (Though "Twinkle, Twinkle" 
of course suffers a lengthy interruption.) 

Shortly, the Mock Turtle sings of its own death in 
"Beautiful Soup", the parody which the Liddell sisters 
probably knew best, as they performed its original, "Star of 
the Evening" in Carroll's hearing. It is a Platonic appeal to 
leave the earthly sphere, "Follow me, come from earth away, 
/ Upward thy spirit's pinions try, / To 
realms of love beyond the sky," 
Compared to this, the Mock Turtle is 
quite Darwinian, as critics have not- 
iced. It is a surprising model, for Car- 
roll, or at least Dodgson, likely respec- 
ted the lyrics, and it is the most purely 
idealistic of any A W parodied songs. 
Still, the parody/mondegreen is 
distinctly present. Life is "Beautiful . 
. . so rich and green." but destined to 
be consumed and consume, "Who for 
such dainties would not stoop?" 

The gentle delivery (tone) of 
the song is foregrounded. It is sung "in 
a voice choked with sobs," and during 
it, the frial, with its harsh death-threats, 
is announced. As the Gryphon pulls 
Alice away, the song, growing fainter, 
is still heard, "carried on the breeze 
that followed them, the melancholy words..." The chapter 
ends with the refrain. "It's all her fancy," the Gryphon's shrug 
about the Queen's threats, has been superseded by realization 
that all life participates in its inevitable destruction. Alice 
senses emotionally a sublime acceptance foregrounded by 
a quiet scene of friendship. She soon returns to a heightened 
nightmare of the Queen's murderous fancies, but now she 
is supported by her vision on the shingle. 

In turn, this vision allows her to defy the Queen, 
and escape into her long-lost natural self If the real Alice 
must die, she can remain real for the interim. How dreary it 
would have been if Carroll had not provided, largely through 
his twisted lyrics, this reviving interlude. Carroll does not 
seem as concerned as I am whether his twisted lyrics are 
true parodies, close replicas of sounds (literary 
mondegreens) or pronounced resonances so softened and 
distant that the term mondegreen probably does not apply. 
All of these songs have thematic, not necessarily rational, 
text-coherence. They carry the emotional tone forward. 
Alice recites about the crocodile when she is crocodilish; 



Father William is brought on the scene by an offended 
parent-figure, the Caterpillar; the tea-trays and elusive flights 
of "Twinkle, Twinkle" perfectly reflect the madly-mixed 
tonal milieu of the Mad Tea Party. 

These passages have the value of irrationality. They 
are chaotic enough to render the mad world around them 
marginally sane — with an interruptive emphasis. And in the 
interruption they contribute to tonality. The scene opens so 
that emotional tone can flow freely, without the normal 
resistance of an antic and picaresque plot. The reader likely 
does require the enforced jolt out of the text — "That is 
wrong from beginning to end" — in order to absorb tone 
properly. Such an effect suggests that Carroll values tonal 
coherence, whatever other coherence he will lay aside. 
Perhaps this effect helps account for the smoothness which, 
despite disparate elements, is a characteristic of AW. 

Kelly creates a larger universe than Carroll, and 
unlike Carroll, prefers to create his chaos with largesse, 
not Carroll's sparse precision. Decking the halls — decking 
us all — with mondegreens is no mean task. Yet their effects 
are similar. "The usefulness of language as a means of 
reliable communication is continually under direct attack 
in Pogo" says Carl Brucker, who could have said the same 
for Carroll. "Semantic and phonetic mutilation of words, 
metaphors taken literally galore result in communication 
without comprehension." This linguistic confusion is part 
of Kelly's satiric method. Wah Kelly has probably worked 
harder at his distinct, self-contained, and wholly comic 
literary mondegreens than Carroll did. Certainly, as the 
evidence of yearly changes shows, he worked longer. Says 
Brucker, "The misspoken and misunderstood messages that 
amuse and conflise Pogo's readers represent 'a stream of 
individual and group consciousness . . . which cannot be 
adequately represented by conventionally ordered speech 
in one language but only by dipping into the muttered dream 
language'." Brucker believes that in the end, Kelly's 
meandering welter of language comes round to forming 
community, and serves that purpose. It cannot remain auto- 
nomous for very long, anymore than a mondegreen, once 
recognized, can escape being captured and explained, dis- 
cussed, and so forth. 

Yet Carroll's "misspoken, misunderstood" lang- 
uage, though whittled to bare bones, has the greater ability 
to sustain autonomy. In the end, by influencing tone, by 
unyielding precision and the scope of its poetic imagination, 
by a sort of damn-your-eyes imperviousness, it goes a long 
way toward overmastering the other text — the "right-spoken" 
bulk of it. Distinctly, Carroll does not offer community, 
certainly not in any form approaching Kelly's extended 
brouhaha. Pogo continues to live among his swampland 
companions. Alice just wakes up. Still, that rationality can 
be similarly interrupted by two such different uses of a 
single device, and for language to release so much unbridled 
meaning through thought-interruption alone are fascinating 


"What is all this Snark and Boojum stuff?" said Arthur. "You've 
talked about it ever since you came in with us on this operatic 
venture. Some obscure literary reference, I suppose, designed to 
keep the uneducated in their proper place. Instruct me, Penny; I 
am just a humble, teachable moneyman. Let me into your Druid 

"Sorry, sorry, Arthur; I suppose it is a private lingo but it says so 
much in a few words. You see, there's a very great poem by 
Lewis Carroll about the Hunting of the Snark; a lot of crazy 
creatures set off", they know not whither, in search of they know 
not what. The hunt is led by a Bellman — that's you, Arthur — ftill of 
zeal and umph, and his crew includes a Boots and a Banker, and a 
Billiard Maker and a Beaver who makes lace - probably you, 
Simon, because 'he often saved them from wreck, / Though none 
of the sailors knew how'. And there's a very peculiar creature 
who seems to be a Baker but turns out to be a Butcher [sic], and 
he is omnicompetent — 

He would answer to 'Hi! ' or to any loud cry, 

Such as 'Fry me!' or 'Fritter-my-wig!' 

To 'What-you-may-call-um!' or 'What-was-his-name!' 

But especially 'Thing-um-a-jig!' 

While, for those who preferred a more forcible word, 

He had different names for [sic] these: 

His intimate friends called him 'Candle-ends ', 

And his enemies, 'Toasted-cheese '. 

— so that's obviously you, Geraint, you Cymric mystifier, because 
you have us ail buffaloed about this opera business. It's just about a 
crazy voyage that somehow, in an unfathomable way, makes a kind 
of eerie sense. I mean, so many of us are professors — well, Clem 
and Simon and me, which is quite a few — and listen to this from 
the Bellman's definition of a Snark - 

The third is its slowness in taking a jest 
Should you happen to venture on one. 
It will sigh like a thing that is deeply distressed: 
And it always looks grave at a pun. 

Isn't that what we've been doing all evening? Yammering about 
Malory and the scholarly approach to something that is utterly 
unscholarly in the marrow of its bones, because it's Art. And Art is 
rum stuff- the very rummest. It may look like a nice, simple 
Snark, but it can suddenly prove to be a Boojum, and then, look 

'For, although common Snarks do no manner of harm 

Yet I feel it my duty to say. 

Some are Boojums - ' The Bellman broke off in alarm. 

For the Baker had fainted away. 

Do you get what I mean, Arthur? Do you see how it fits in and 
haunts my mind? 

\And on the penultimate page of the novel:] 

"The Snark was a pretty fair comment on that opera job, and in the 
end the Snark was only half a Boojum." 

"I've never got around to reading that poem," said Arthur. "Simon 
- lighten my darkness, I beseech you. What the hell is a Snark? 
And a Boojum? I suppose 1 ought to know." 

"You won't ever know if you don't read it," said Darcourt. "But 
just for the moment, a Snark is a highly desirable object of search 
which, when found, can be unexpected and dangerous- a Boojum, 
in fact. All Snarks are likely to be Boojums to the unresting, 
questing Romantic spirit. It's a splendid allegory of all artistic 

Robertson Davies 
The Lyre of Orpheus 

Leaves from the Deanery Garden 

The latest KL must be the densest yet with original 
research — from the no-white-stone-untumed unearthings to 
the search for which news items or Arab words CLD may 
or may not have read — and it's immense ftin. 

I just heard a radio interview with Robert Littell, whose new 
novel about the CIA, The Company, contains an Alice puzzle 
piece on the cover. The icon is not insignificant. In his year 
of research, Littell read that Desmond Fitzgerald, a big 
player at the CIA, was forever quoting the Alice books, 

Littell procured Carroll's pair and read them closely. Seeing 
the parallels between Alice's worlds and the CIA gave him 
the impetus for his novel, he said. 

So far as I know, he does not know how closely his surname 
cuts to the source. 

Thanks for your stimulating editing 

Gary Brockman 

It seems to me that" Kate Lyon in 
"The White Stone" {KL 68, p.5) is 
reaching for it and perhaps reaching 
too far. In particular her remark 
''albo lapillo notare diem, as it was 
known in Latin" I think is off the 
mark. Morton Cohen's "Catullus's 
""Lapide candidiore diem notare' " 
has it right. Also his idea on Tom 
Brown's Schooldays seems much 
more likely than a history of Celtic 
stoneware. At least Cohen looked 
up his Latin and got the reference! 
One rendering from Catullus' "o 
lucem candidiore notaT is given in 
a commentary as ''lapide ilia diem 
candidiore notaf with the 
comment that the white mark for a 
lucky day appears in various forms. 

As always, I enjoy your Knight Letter hugely. Your write- 
up of Hollywood made me regret not having made the trip! 

Yours in Wonderland, 

John Hadden 

Cohen 's remark can be found in footnote 9 on page 543 
of Lewis Carroll: A Biography. Here are some references 
from classical literature: 


Therefore, it is enough if this day, which she marks, is given to 
me with a whiter stone than ordinary days! 

Carmen (Songs) LXVIII 
Gaius Valerius Catullus 

O DIEM laetum, notandumque mhi candidissimo calculo. 
O HAPPY day, and one to be marked for me with the whitest stone 

Epistles (VI, 11) 
Plinius Caecilius Secundus (Pliny the Younger) 


Happy both days, days to be marked by me with more auspicious 

Epigrams (IX, 52) 
M. Valeri Martialis (Martial) 


Let a milky stone mark this day 

Epigrams (VIII, 45) 


Let this beautiful day not lack a white mark 

(or, in the jazzier James Michie translation, "Chalk it up on the 

calendar / A lucky day! " 

Odes, I, 36 
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) 


Mark this day, Marcinus, with a white stone 

Satires, II, I 
Aulus Persius Flaccus (Persius) 

"The Romans adopted the custom of 
marking days with white stones from 
the Thracians or the Scythians and it 
probably represents a very, very 
ancient practice. At some point the 
practice of placing a stone in ajar may 
have been applied to actual marks on 
a calendar " ~ August Imholtz 

Enjoyed the "Disney influence" and 
other material in Spring Knight Letter. 
(By the way, as the issues of Knight 
Letter have grown over the years — 
wouldn't it be a nice idea to start 
including tables of contents?) "The 
White Stone" by Kate Lyon in the issue 
is ingeniously argued, but it depends on 
two unlikely premises: that Carroll 
would have known examples of large 
white stones from Celtic sources as 
meaning a sacred landscape, and that he would have applied 
that meaning to the rather different meaning he would 
certainly have known for small white stones used as counters 
(specifically as counters to mark days) from elsewhere. 

English public schools gave their students large doses of 
Latin, and in the Latin poets a day counted with a white stone 
or pebble was a lucky day, but not necessarily a sacred one. 
For example, Persius and Martial use the image of marking 
the day with a white stone to celebrate friends' birthdays, 
and Martial uses it to celebrate a friend's homecoming. 
These pleasures are innocent, but not particularly sacred. 
Catullus uses the white stones to celebrate getting his 
mistress's sexual favors. Carroll might, certainly, have 
resfricted his white stones to mark pleasures that were not 
only innocent but also sacred, but additional evidence would 
be needed to show that he was doing so. The examples he 
would have studied thoroughly in school did not do so. 

Ruth Berman 


Reflecting some more on the list of Looking-Glass chess 
pieces, I wonder if the Wasp was going to have been a Red 
Bishop. Since Alice meets him in the T"* rank, before cross- 
ing into the 8* square to become a queen, he probably 
belonged to the red pieces, not the white, and 1 notice that 
the Crow/Red Bishop is about the least important of the 
major pieces. 

I suppose the Wasp could have been a pawn, but most of the 
pawns are matched up with red and white pieces 
corresponding (oyster & oyster, for instance) and are drawn 
from unimportant characters (although the Fawn-Pawn — 
but perhaps Carroll was attracted by the rhyme? — is a pawn 
from among the moderately important characters). Another 
possibility could be that the Wasp was replaced by one of 
the characters who are not actually characters in the story — 
the Old Man (on the white side) from the White Knight's 
poem, and the Walrus & Carpenter (on the red side) from 
the Tweedles' poem. But the W&C are a matched set and 
the Old Man, as a white piece, is less likely a possibility for 
the Wasp. 

Ruth Berman 

(in the Yahoo Lewis Carroll e-group) 

Just a note to acknowledge your fine wit in listing Leach's 
7X5 essay under "Cyberspace." 

The revolution of the revisionists is at hand! As you surely 
know, she and her [ej:-]husband also live in Yahoo's 
cyberspace where they promote the manifesto. 


Richard Kelly 

[Actually, that was an oversight. But are you implying that 
"cyberspace" is a less legitimate place than "meatspace" 
for the dissemination of information?^ 

[The following letter is a reaction to an article by Ivor 
Wynne Jones in the Daily Post (Liverpool), July 2, 2002, 
deploring that the marble statue of the White Rabbit in 
Llandudno, Wales, built in 1933, has "become the target 
for mindless vandals of [the] bizarre modern Welsh 
culture based on alcohol, drugs and TV violence " and 
proposing several solutions.] 

Is nothing sacred? It's about time someone took some 
action. On our last visit to Llandudno, years ago, the statue 
had been vandalized many times over the years and was in 
such poor condition that it seemed beyond repair. Maybe it 
isn't that bad, and there's some hope. In any event, if it is 
repaired it should be parted from the plaque and placed 
indoors or otherwise removed from easy access. Llandudno 
has always been indecisive about CLD and APL. The hotels 
in the history are either proud of the connection or aloof 
and in denial of any importance to the links. Strange. 
Curiouser. Shameful. 

Sandor Burstein 

[The plaque claims that CLD wrote AW in Llandudno. See 
KLs 49 and 50.] 

Ravings from the Writing Desk 

of Stephanie Lovett 

If you've been smelling smoke when you turn on 
your computer, it's because the LCSNA has been burning 
up the Internet with fast and furious e-mails, all to arrange a 
wonderful Fall meeting for you. Thanks to the efforts of 
Mark Burstein, we will be at the San Francisco Museum of 
Modem Art on November 2"^ where we will gather in their 
brand-new education rooms for a talk from Doug Nickel, 
the curator of SFMoMA's show "Dreaming in Pictures: the 
Photographs of Lewis Carroll", in conjunction with a pri- 
vate tour of the exhibition. Michael Welch has arranged for 
us to have a presentation from the Children's Discovery Mu- 
seum in San Jose about their interactive Alice in Wonder- 
land exhibit, which will soon be touring the country. 
We also expect to be seeing a 
Malcolm, a vignette about 
and photography. 

capped off 
party at the 
from the Bur--^'"'® 
tion, prepared 
that evening, 
meeting no- 
Fall with all the 
but circle the week- 
ber 2"^ on your calen- 
Plans for 
also been zooming 

film by Andy 

Dodgson, Alice, 

Our day will be 

with a cocktail 

nearby Cartoon Art 

where we will see 

ated items 

stein collec- 

specially for 

ook for your 

tices in early 

latest details, 

end of Novem- 


more meetings have 
through cyberspace. 

I'm very pleased to report that we will soon have an oppor- 
tunity to return to Chicago, as Joel Birenbaum has arranged 
for us to meet at the Newberry Library on April 12* of 2003. 
A number of great program ideas are in the works, which 
will be announced as soon as we have confirmations from 
the speakers. You can definitely look forward to the first 
LCSNA auction since 1994. 

A landmark in the offing for the Fall of 2003 will 
be the Society's first visit to Cornell University. Plans are 
already well advanced for a jam-packed weekend there on 
November 7"" and 8*, revolving around a major exhibit 
mounted by Jon Lindseth, and the launch of a Cornell Uni- 
versity Press book on Lewis Carroll's letters to his illustra- 
tors, to be edited by Morton Cohen and Edward Wakeling. 
We even have tentative plans for the Spring of 2004, a re- 
turn to New York University to celebrate the inauguration 
of our archive there. 

Please check in at our website for the latest up- 
dates as plans evolve. I hope you will find it a real plus to 
have so many firm dates for friture meetings, and I have ev- 
ery confidence that you will find all of these meetings to be 
well worth your while to attend. We'll have a full day of 
unique experiences this Fall in San Francisco, and I would 
like to remind you that this will be a voting meeting as well. 

Heartfelt thanks to you all for allowing me to serve 
as your president for the past four years. 


Touching the Heart 

August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

On a rainy April 12, 2002, one of the most 
successful Maxine Schaefer Memorial Outreach readings 
ever was held at the Sacred Heart's Stuart Country Day 
School in Princeton, New Jersey, founded in 1963 and now 
numbering 547 students. About 42 girls from the fifth grade, 
the last year of the Lower School, attired in their green and 
blue jumpers, assembled in the school's well-appointed 
modem theater. LCSNA President Stephanie J. Lovett began 
the program by introducing David Schaefer, who said a few 
words about his late wife, Maxine — who she was, how she 
became so interested in the Schaefer Carroll collection (and 
here he asked how many of the young ladies were them- 
selves collectors), and why we sponsor readings. LCSNA 
members and actors Andrew Sellon and Patt Griffm then 
sat on the edge of the stage and gave a sparkling rendition 
of the Mad Tea Party scene. 

After the applause ceased, Andrew asked for 
questions, which at first were a little slow in coming. The 
first questions addressed, in fact, what David had said about 
collecting and only then did they move on to questions about 
how the actors prepared, how you represent characters, 
especially the animal characters, in Alice's world, what 
treacle is, etc. The questions about character portrayal were 
especially relevant since the girls were getting ready to 
perform their own play based on a conflation of the two 
Alice books. 

The students then played a most delightful and 
extremely well done Lobster Quadrille and Mock Turtle 
scene, closing with the poignant "Beautifiil Soup". Lucy 
Lovett then helped distribute to each of the Stuart girls a 
copy of the Books of Wonder edition of the Adventures 
with a Maxine Schaefer Memorial Reading bookplate. 

The following and other photos from the Stuart 
Country Day reading may be found at 

A Lewis Carroll Scrapbook 

August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

At the Library of Congress on March 22, 2002, 
Edward Wakeling, David Schaefer, and I examined a 
scrapbook that Dodgson had kept from the late 1 850s well 
into the 1870s. The scrapbook consists mostly of clippings, 
or "cuttings" as the British say, that in themselves offer an 
interesting window into his mind. There are, however, a few 
other very, very intriguing items in the scrapbook, about one 
of which a short article is to appear in the next issue of The 
Carrollian. Another important and exciting discovery in the 
scrapbook is a printed copy of Feeding the Mind that 
almost certainly antedates the manuscript of the talk that 
Carroll delivered at Alfreton. A facsimile of that manuscript 
was published in Selwyn H. Goodacre's Feeding the Mind: 
A Centenary Celebration of Lewis Carroll 's Visit to 
Alfreton in 1884 (LCSNA Carroll Studies No. 8). 

Two copies of the scrapbook version of Feeding 
the Mind were printed by David Schaefer from a digital 
image made by Edward Wakeling and presented to Patt 
Griffin and Andrew Sellon during the general meeting at 
Princeton in recognition of the outstanding job they have 
done for the Maxine Schaefer Memorial Reading. 

The scrapbook itself was bought by an American 
undergraduate named Frederic Huidekoper at the Holywell 
Music Room sale in 1898. Huidekoper became a colonel 
in the First World War, served on several international 
commissions, and as a naval historian (an intriguing switch 
for an army officer) was probably the first American to work 
with the Russian naval archives in St. Petersburg. He left 
the scrapbook to the Library of Congress in 1934, and was 
killed by a trolley car in Georgetown a few years later. 

Here is the Library of Congress record for the 
scrapbook that first alerted Edward Wakeling to its existence 
many years ago: 

AC999/D6/Ofnce Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge 

Scrap-book belonging to the Rev. Charles Lutwig [sic'\ 
Dodgson... bought at the auction sale of his furniture, personal 
eflfects and books held at the Hollywell [sic] music room, Oxford, 
on Tues. May 10, 1898, and following days, by Frederic Louis 
Huidekoper, then an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford 
[n.p., n.d.] 

301. illus. 32x28 cm. 

Collection of miscellaneous clippings with manuscript title page. 
Partial contents, probably in Dodgson 's own handwriting, on inside 
of cover and on a separate sheet, laid in. 

Copies oi Punch for March 1 6 and April 27, 1 872, Fun April 27, 
1 872, and several other miscellaneous leaves laid in. 




Bill Peet 

(1915 -May 11*) 

Cartoonist and author Bill Peet was "considered to 
be on a par with Walt Disney for his storytelling 
abilities". He was one of the chief writers of the AW 
script. Peet started working for Disney in 1937 
doing fill-in drawings between frames and, by night, 
tracing dwarfs and, eventually, Donald Duck. It was 
with Dumbo, however, that his true genius finally 
became apparent to Walt Disney (with whom he often 
quarreled over the many years of their association). 
Peet satirized Disney in his drawings for Captain 
Hook and, to a lesser degree, in his Merlin. After 
they separated in 1 964, Peet pursued a second career 
as an author-illustrator, writing more than thirty 
books. His illustrated Bill Peet: An Autobiography 
(Scholastic, 1995), recounting his long career and 
his disputes with Disney, is well worth reading. 

Ward Kimball 

(1914 - July 8*) 

Ward Kimball, one of the "Nine Old Men" of the 
Disney animation studios, passed away in his home 
in Gabriel, California. He was a directing anunator 
on Alice in Wonderland among many other Disney 
classics. Two-time Oscar-winner, Dixieland trom- 
bonist ("The Firehouse Five+2"), collector of anti- 
que toys, cartoonist, raikoad enthusiast (some say 
the full-scale railroad in his backyard inspired his 
friend Walt to create Disneyland!), and designer of 
many favorite Disney characters (the Cheshire Cat, 
the March Hare, the "Mad Hatter" and the 1 938 rede- 
sign of Mickey himself), Ward was a well-beloved 
figure in and around the industry for many, many 
years. He was recently featured in a signed, hand- 
inked and hand-painted limited edition lithograph eel 
($2,500). Ward will be very much missed. 

Yasunari Takahashi 

(1932 - June 24*) 

We mourn the loss of Professor Yasunari Taka- 
hashi, distinguished translator of Lewis Carroll 
into Japanese and the foremost Japanese author- 
ity on, and translator of, Samuel Beckett. He was 
the President of the Japanese Lewis Carroll Soci- 
ety and also the Shakespeare Society of Japan. His 
works include but are not limited to the follow- 

Arisu no ehan was published in 1973; Fan- 
tastic Alice, edited by Takahashi (Subarushobo, 
1976); Complete Nonsense (Shobunsha, 
1977); Nursery Alice (1977), translated joint- 
ly with his wife Michi; Lewis Carroll's Poems 
— Words from Wonderland, translated in colla- 
boration with Jun-nosuke Sawazaki (Chikuma- 
shobo, 1977); Letters to Girls translated with 
Michi (Shinshokan, 1978); Words from Alice's 
Land — Interviews (1981); Alice's Adventures 
in Wonderland (with Arthur Rackham's illus- 
trations) translated with Michi (Shinshokan, 
1985); Alices in Victorian Age — Lewis Car- 
roll Photographer (Shinshokan, 1988). 

He was a visiting fellow at Trinity and Pembroke 
Colleges at Cambridge. At Columbia University 
in New York he delivered the Bernard Beckerman 
Memorial Lecture, ''The Braggart Samurai: Col- 
liding Cultures in The Merry Wives of Windsor". 
The esteem in which he was held at Cambridge was 
shown in the festschrift Surprised By Scenes, pro- 
duced in honor of his 60* birthday; ten of the es- 
says were contributed by members of the Cam- 
bridge English faculty. 

"Who in the world am I?" 

Identify the 19*-century author about whom Martin Gardner 
is writing in the following excerpts from one of his 
Scientific American "Mathematical Games" columns in the 

• "[He] was trained in mathematics by his father." 

• "His contributions to logic, the foundations of 
mathematics and scientific method, decision 
theory and probability theory were enormous." 

"[His] recreational approach to mathematics is 
most evident in his views on how mathematics 
should be taught to children." 
"[His works] are filled with novel ways of using 
puzzles, games, and toys for introducing 
mathematical concepts." 

answer on p. 21 






As a part of the outreach activities of its 
Stan Marx Memorial Fund, named in honor of the 
founder of the Lewis Carroll Society of North 
America (LCSNA), the late Stan Marx of Roslyn, 
New York, the LCSNA is sponsoring an annual 
essay competition. The author of the winning entry 
will be invited to deliver his or her paper at one of 
our semiannual meetings, and the essay will also 
be published in the Society's newsletter and journal 
of record, the Knight Letter, if so determined by 
the Society's executive committee. The winner will 
also receive a cash award. 

Guidelines and rules for entrants: 

1 . The author of the essay must be a student at a 
U.S. college or university at the time of sub- 
mission of the essay. 

2. The essay must be an original paper on any 
aspect of the life or works of Lewis Carroll 
(the Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). A sum- 
mary or repetition of previously published work 
on Lewis Carroll without any original thought 
or criticism is not acceptable. 

3. The essay must be between 2000 and 3000 
words in length. 

4 . The essay must conform to the ML A publication 
guidelines as described in the most recent 
version of their Handbook for Writers of Re- 
search Papers with due attention to such matters 
as attribution of sources, etc. 

5 . The essay must be submitted both electronically 
to the LCSNA Marx Essay Subcommittee at the 
following e-mail address: fabeles@cougar., and in paper hardcopy (three copies, 
double spaced) to the following address: 

Kean University 

Department of Mathematics and 

Computer Science 
attn. Coordinator of Graduate Programs 
1000 Morris Ave. 
Union, NJ 07083-7131 

6 . The essay must not already have been published 
nor be under consideration for publication. 

7 . The essay must not be simultaneously submitted 
to any other print or electronic journal or 
publication nor be submitted to any other such 
publisher (commercial, academic, or other) 
prior to or after submission to LCSNA until the 
LCSNA informs the author of its release. 

8. The essay must be written in English although 
it may treat and quote foreign language 
translations of Carroll's works and, of course, 
cite foreign language commentaries, criticism, 
etc. as is customary in any scholarly article. 

9. The essay must be received by the LCSNA 
Marx Essay Subcommittee, consisting of three 
Carroll scholars, by Oct. 31, 2002. 

Responsibilities of the LCSNA: 

1 . The decision of the LCSNA Marx Essay Sub- 
committee shall be final. 

2. The LCSNA assumes no responsibility or 
liability for the positions expressed in the essay. 

3. LCSNA will not return the submitted essays, 
or correspondence. 

4. The winning essayist will be notified by e-mail 
and such notification will also be posted on the 
LCSNA Web site. Such notification will occur 
by Mar. 15,2003. 

5. The LCSNA Marx Essay Subcommittee, in 
conjunction with the executive board of the 
Society, will decide to which LCSNA meeting 
the winning contributor will be invited. 

6. The LCSNA will give the winner a cash prize 
in the sum of $250.00 (two hundred and fifty 
dollars) within three months of announcement 
of the award. 

7. The award will be announced in the first issue 
of the LCSNA's newsletter, the Knight Letter, 
published after the decision of the Marx Essay 

8. The LCSNA Marx Essay Subcommittee, in 
conjunction with the editor of the Knight Letter, 
will decide in which issue of the Knight Letter 
the winning contribution (or a long abstract of 
it) will be published. 

9. The LCSNA acknowledges no further claims 
or responsibilities beyond those specifically 
stated in "The Responsibilities of the LCSNA" 
enumerated above. 


The Carroll Crossword! 


1 .A girl who follows a rabbit down a 
hole in Alice's Adventures In 

3. The rabbit had a 


7. The Mad 

and a 

had a tea party. 

8. Lewis Carroll was born in 

10. Lewis Carroll's real name was 

1 1 . Lewis Carroll invented this kind of 
poem, in which the first letter in each 
line is used to spell a word. 

13. The took Alice to see 

the Mock Turtle 

14. The 

smoked a hookah 

and sat on a mushroom 


2. Bill The _ 
of a chimney. 
4. The Mock 

was kicked out 

told a sad story. 

5. Christ Church is in , 


6. In a story by a dormouse Elsie, Lacie, 
and Tillie lived in the bottom of a 

9. Maxine has a memorial 

fund in her memory that holds readings 
for children. 

1 1 . What color were the queen's roses 
being painted? 

12. The dormouse was in one of these. 

13. All that is left after the Cheshire cat 
vanishes is his 

If you have suggestions, or comments for "The Tumtum Tree", e-mail us at Please give these pages to any young person you know, or 
please do it yourself 

Editors - Mickey Salins, Lena Salins, and Eva Salins 

Tumtum Tree #7 

Tales Of Tails 

Everybody knows of the tale of the mouse's tail. But it 
doesn't seem fair that only mice tails have tales. All animal tails 
must have tales. What about the tale of the fox's tail or the tale of 
the dog's tail? Here's a tale of a cat's tail: 

Cleo said to a cat that she slept 

on a mat. With a bell and a ball 
she 'dplay all afternoon. But when she 
played with some wires 
her tail caught on 

fire and soon 
she was running 

all around in the room. 
When her owners walked in 
all they could do is grin 
to see Cleo running and 
shouting in a flaming 
fire ring. Pour water on 
her, extinguish the 
flames ihey watered her 
down lo keep her 
from death. 

By Mickey Salins (which is why Carroll is the 3 most quoted 
author on the earth, and I'm not.) 

On a Scale of One to Tenniel 

In December 1907, when the copyright on the Adventures had just run out and many others were trying their 
hands at illustrating it, E.T. Reed (1860-1933) made this drawing for Punch, titled "Termiel's 'Alice' Reigns Supreme" 
with the following dialog: 

Alice: "Who are all these funny little people?" 
Hatter: "Your Majesty, they are our imitators." 
Alice: "Curiouser and curiouser!" 

This was submitted to us from Clive Hurst, Rare Books Librarian at the Bodelian, via Angelica Carpenter. Can 
you identify the artists being parodied? 


Lewis Carroll, Photographer 

Review by Matthew Demakos 
Illustrated by Jonathan Dixon 

[Introduction by the Author. — Princeton's much anticipated publication of their archives, more precisely, Lewis Carroll's 
photographs, deserves a special mention and in turn a special treatment in our current journal. So to honor Roger Taylor 
and co-author Edward Wakeling, and a book that will have many of us squeezing on "A List of Top Ten Most Important 
Volumes for the Lewis Carroll Scholar," I — sans reservations — offer this most humble imitation. ] 

From a parcel Hiawatha 
Took a volume bound in rosewood, 
Bound in shaded spruce and rosewood; 
Gently held it in his fingers, 
Fingers that caressed the edges. 
In this state it lay compactly. 
But he burst with inspiration, 
And he opened up its pages 
Smack-dab in the very middle. 
Then he pushed and pulled the covers. 
Bent and pried and cracked the covers. 
Squeezed them back upon each other 
Till the book became a sculpture - 
Wings the pages, legs the covers - 
Of the Blue Long-legged Heron. 

This he perched upon a counter 
For opinions there to gather 
From the patrons in his bookstore. 

First, a father ventured forward 
While continuously scratching 
In his waistcoat for some reason; 
Read the pages, ohhhh-ing, ahhh-ing. 
He suggested that the volume, 
Lewis Carroll, Photographer 

(Though he mispronounced the title) 
Did contain a splendid essay, 
Taylor-made for Carroll students 
(Nor was he a nimble speller). 
It so pleased his learned fancies 
That the man at once professed it 
Was as if he'd read another 
Full biography of Carroll, 
With photography the background - 
Written with a brush extensive. 
Written with a helpful structure. 
Written with a bid to sources, 
Written with a nod to experts. 
Written with apt illustrations. 
Written with a home computer... 
Hiawatha stomped the floorboards 
(His reaction automatic 
When he hears a record skipping). 
Next, his eldest son meandered 
Forward with a certain motion 
Like a serpent for some reason; 
Took the book and browsed the pictures. 
Not a mere selection from the 
University of Princeton - 


So began the grad's suggestion - 

But the whole of their collection 

Here presented in the order 

Of the children's author's albums, 

The photographer's own albums, 

Giving one the sense of Carroll's 

Honed variety, his medley. 

His assortment, mixture, hodgepodge - 

Variation, modulation. 

This created a new image 

Of the author's photographing. 

He'd not only taken child-friends 

But he'd taken bones and fossils. 

But he'd taken men of science, 

But he'd taken haunted castles. 

But he'd taken famous writers, 

But he'd taken paths and rivers, 

But he'd taken artists' sculptures... 

Hiawatha stomped the floorboards! 

Last, his scrubby schoolboy brother. 
With a neck-brace for some reason. 
Snatched the volume from the counter. 
He suggested that the section 
At the end, the book's last section, 
Pleased him most of all because it 
Listed all of Carroll's pictures 
Known to date to have been taken. 
Archived in the world's collections 
Or referred to by the artist 
In his diaries and letters. 
Spewing that the list was surely 
Not constructed by some weakling, 
But a gentleman of letters 
In a more convenient order. 
Perfect for the statistician, 
Perfect for percentage makers. 
Perfect for the analyzer. 

Perfect for the very anal - 
(Like a hound's before a hydrant 
Hiawatha's leg ascended) - 
Perfect for the tally taker. 
Perfect for the number cruncher, 
Perfect for the old bean counter. . . 
Hiawatha stomped the floorboards! 

Finally, my Hiawatha 
Questioned all of them together - 
Daddy, Graddy and the Laddy. 
"Would you buy this handsome volume?" 

Then in concert they abused it. 
Unrestrainedly abused it, 
As the most disgracefiil volume 
That the world could lay its eyes on. 
Offering such bosh to pafrons! 
Did he take them, Hiawatha, 
For the most distasteful creatures? 
And they all reftised to buy it, 
Choosing HA! to buy some other. 

Thus departed Hiawatha 
With the sculpture of the heron; 
Chucked it in the store's "Remainders" 
Selling for $5.67. 
Thus his patrons bought another 
With a spine that was not broken. 
Yes, another, quite another, 
Lewis Carroll, Photographer. 
For they all extolled its virtues. 
For they all approved the volume. 
For they all believed it handsome, 
For they all admired the scholars. 
For they all enjoyed the pictures. 
For they had a coffee table... 
So we hear another stomping 
Leg-end of our Hiawatha. 

Answer to "Who in the World Am I?", p. 17 

Gardner is describing Charles Sanders Peirce 
(1839-1914), an American described by his fans at the 
Charles S. Peirce Society (which publishes Transactions 
and can be found at as a "mathematician, 
astronomer, chemist, geodesist, surveyor, cartographer, me- 
trologist, spectroscopist, engineer, inventor; psychologist, 
philologist, lexicographer, historian of science, mathemati- 
cal economist, lifelong student of medicine; book reviewer, 
dramatist, actor, short story writer; phenomenologist, semi- 

otician, logician, rhetorician, metaphysician; the first mod- 
em experimental psychologist in the Americas, the first me- 
teorologist to use a wave-length of light as a unit of mea- 
sure, the inventor of the quincuncial projection of the sphere, 
the first known conceiver of the design and theory of an 
electric switching-circuit computer, and the founder of 'the 
economy of research'." 

Gardner's article is in Scientific American Vol. 
239, no. 1, July 1978. 



The Dickens You Say! 


The full text of Hugues Lebailly's talk "Dodgson 
and Women" which he presented to the LCSNA meeting in 
New York in April 2001 is to be mcluded in Volume 32 of 
the Dickens Studies Annual: Essays on Victorian Fiction, 
scheduled to be published in late December '02 or early 
'03 by AMS Press in cooperation with the City University 
of New York. "It has been a long wait, but at last we should 
be able to refer journalists and their like to a 'scientific' 
paper published in a respected academic journal, and not 
only to In the Shadow of the Dreamchildy Hugues' 
summary is as follows: 

"Again and again, the Reverend C. L. Dodgson, 
better-known under his pen-name of Lewis Carroll, is 
described in the media as a more or less active child-lover, 
whose single lifelong source of pleasure would have been 
the company of prepubescent girls. 

If his most famous extant photographs indeed 
depict little girls in various attires, an objective examination 
of his unabridged diaries and published letters demonstrates 
that, far from deliberately dropping his young friends when 
they reached puberty, he was very intent on sfretching his 
acquaintance with them as long and as far as they were 
willing — and as Mrs Grundy would allow him — to. The 
actual ages of the recipients of his so-called letters to child- 
friends, his repeated marks of satisfaction at being able to 
go around with older girls and women as he himself grew 
older, as well as massive evidence for his fascination with 
the adult naked female body, have all been overlooked by 
most of his biographers so far. 

In this day and age when pgedophilia is unanimously 
condemned as an abominable crime, it is high time the image 
of one of the greatest Victorian writers be washed from such 
oufrageous and ungrounded suspicions." 

Dickens Studies Annual can be obtained from 
AMS Press, Inc., Brooklyn Navy Yard, Bdg. 292, Suite 417, 
63 Flushing Avenue, Brooklyn NY 11205; fax: (212) 995- 

A Frosty Knight 

For sale: an original pen-and-ink A.B. Frost drawing 
for Rhyme? and Reason? (p.39), "He Goes About and Sits 
on Folk", depicting the "immensely fat" ghost "Knight- 
Mayor" sitting on a sleeping man in a four-poster bed (in 
Canto V, "Byckerment" of "Phantasmagoria"). Image size: 
5 1/8x3 1/8 inches; 130 x 93 mm. Signed with initials at 
lower left: A.B.F. With excellent first edition copy of the 
book. $12,500 from the Heritage Bookstore, 8540 Melrose 
Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90069; http://heritagebook;; 310.659- 
3674; -4872 fax. The image is at right. 

Currents from La Nina 

The full English text of an 
interview with Nina Demurova in the 
online The Russian Journal {Pyc- 
CKUU }KypHaji) can be also seen at An excerpt: 

Ye.K.: Since the first anonymous franslation of Alice was 
published in 1 879, under the title Sonya v strane diva 
("Sonya in the Land of Marvel"), this book has been 
translated many times. What do you think of these 

N.D. Yes, it was a very funny title. By the way, an American 
researcher with Russian roots who spoke some Russian 
translated this title (back into English as) "The 
Sleepyhead in Virginland". I don't think he had ever held 
that book in his hands. 

Fundamental Salvation 

The Guardian reported May 25, 2002, that with 
just a few days left before the expiration of the temporary 
export bar on the photographs [KL 68 p. 13], the National 
Portrait Gallery and the National Museum of Photography, 
Film and Television have raised the purchase price through 
a combination of public donations, 100,000 pounds British 
from the Art Fund and 47,500 pounds British from the 
National Heritage Memorial Fund. 


He is immensely fat, and so 
Well suits the occupation: 
In point of fact, if you must know, 
We used to call him, years ago. 
The Mayor and Corporation! 


The Alice-in-Wonderland Follies 

Review by Monica Edinger 

I saw the New York Theater Ballet's "/ifF Follies" 
yesterday and it was delightfiil. A local member of the 
LCSNA had called me last year to tell me how wonderful it 
was and she was absolutely right. It was conceived and 
choreographed by Keith Michael, who writes in the program 
notes, "The /i ^Follies" opens in 1915 at The Palace Theater 
in New York amid the imagmed electrical atmosphere of a 
diamond-studded vaudeville extravaganza celebrating the 
50th anniversary of the publication of Lewis Carroll's 
literary classic. Alice's fantasies unfold in music hall acts 
reminiscent of the unapologetically crowd-pleasing 
effervescence of tum-of-the-century headliners such as Joe 
Weber and Lew Fields, Lillian Russell, Helen Hayes, Eddie 
Foy, Vernon Castle, Fay Templeton and Marie Dressier — 
the perfect time-travel cast." 

A small cast and simple set produced a stupendous 
performance. The effects were very clever. For example, 
the table for the tea party consisted of a bunch of children, 
each with a head sticking out of the table and a tea cup on 
her head. When they moved together the effect was of the 
long tea party table. Another clever scene was the croquet 
game with two children playing frightened hedgehogs. My 
favorite scene though has to be Jabberwocky, which was done 
with slappmg, clapping, talking, etc. 

This was probably one of the best theatrical versions 
of Alice that I have ever seen. I wish there was a way for 
them to do it for a LCSNA meeting! According to their 
website ( they will also be performing it 
around the East Coast this Spring. 

Lost in the Map 

A visual "Word Map" of .4 fF (among 2,000 others) 
can be seen at "Behind the computer glass, 
Mr. Paley's online software is counting each word and noting 
its location every time it is used. The oval's black center 
soon fills with legibly larger versions of every word from 
the source text... Mr. Paley's software effectively turns any 
prose into concrete poetry in which a word's size and 
location are as important to its meaning as how it is 
used... Once TextArc slices and dices a story, the most 
frequently used words are the brightest. So in the Carroll 
work, 'Alice' glows at the center. And each word's location 
in this linguistic constellation is determined by its exact 
locations in the story text. 'Cheshire,' for instance, is near 
the bottom, close to the middle chapters in which the cat 

materializes. Roll the cursor over a word, and lines pop out 
that connect it to all the points in the outer circle where the 
word is used... Viewing /i//ce, for instance, one can immed- 
iately see that the novel's second most significant word is 
'know', a paradoxical choice for a work in which neither 
the protagonist nor the reader ever ftilly understands what 
is happening." New York Times, Apr. 15, 2002. 

A Dis-Parody of Anonymity 

Matt Demakos, with Ruth Berman 

I. Anonymous Rhymes Carroll Used But Did Not Parody In 
The Alice Books 

• The Queen of Hearts, she made some tarts 

• Tweedledum and Tweedledee 

• Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall 

• The Lion and the Unicom were fighting for the 

II. Anonymous Rhymes Carroll Parodied In The Alice 

• Hush-a-bye baby on the treetop 

Note that "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star" does not 
qualify as a nursery rhyme since it has a known author. Yet 
the author, Jane Taylor, published it in her book Rhymes of 
the Nurseryl According to Opie's The Oxford Dictionary 
of Nursery Rhymes, it was collected in 1860 and 1865, in 
both cases as songs. No wonder the Hatter sings it and 
doesn't recite it. So we'd like to point out that Carroll only 
parodied that prolific writer we know as Anon once! 

AFict's adventures in Wonderland, Chapter Vf: 

Tl^e Cliesl^ire Caf gets Weirder. 

"Strange Matter'by Nick D. Kim at strange-matter. com 


iMfn 0(j^ ra/^-^fa/fO^ 

Regrettably, Alice Pleasance Liddell's 
sesquicentennial (ISO"") birthday 
passed on May 4* without much ado 
on this side of the pond. 



In December, Random House's 
"Modem Library" imprint will be pub- 
lishing a trade paperback edition of ^ W/ 
TLG in its series of world literature. 
Lynne Vallone of Texas A&M is doing 
the end notes; A.S.Byatt is providing 
the introduction. 0-375-76138-1, $9. 

A very well-produced hardcover fac- 
simile of Rackham's AW in fiall color 
for only $20 from SeaStar. This con- 
tains the Dobson poem and an after- 
word by its publisher, Peter Glass- 

If you are missing a copy of the fan- 
tastic /i fF parody from MAD magazine, 
they have just released a "50th Anni- 
versary" edition of The Brothers Mad. 

The Dons and Mr. Dickens: The 
Strange Case of the Oxford Christ- 
mas Plot: A Secret Victorian Journal 
Attributed to Wilkie Collins "Disco- 
vered and Edited by William J. Pal- 
mer", St. Martins, 2000, 031226576- 
X, $24. Mr Dickens enlists the aid of 
Mr Dodgson in solving a mystery. 

"For those interested in children's 
books with CarroUian references, I re- 
commend Neil Caiman's Coraline 
(HarperCollins '02, 0380977788). 
This is one very creepy book, but very 
cool too. Coraline goes in and out of 
another world. The one character that 
guides her is a cat. At one point she is 
shut into a mirror." ~ Monica 

Lorna Hussey's lovingly detailed 
illustrations grace Nonsense Verse by 
Lewis Carroll (Bloomsbury, '02; 074 
7548684, $16) in an oversize edition 
"for young and old", including some 
lesser-known works. 

Byron Sewell has again found his muse, 
and will be delighting us with small 
books from The Storkling Press. 
Echoes lists book titles taken from 
Carroll's works [sold out]; Skinny 

Alice is a mystery involving a collector 
of CarroUian erotica; Lewis Carroll's 
Nightmare: Alix's Adventures in Won- 
derland (written with his wife, Vic- 
toria), addresses the question "Did 
Carroll Like Boys?"; He Thought He 
Saw (with August Imholtz) and Dark- 
ling Light, Starless Night are descri- 
bed as ''Sylvie and Bruno fantasies". 
Very limited editions (10-20 copies, 
each $10). 867 Whispering Way, South 
Charleston WV 25303. 

Michele Brown's "New Tales from 
Alice's Wonderland" series of child- 
ren's books (Madcap Books/Andre 
Deutsch '98/99) include Dinah Plays 
Hide-and Seek, The March Hare s Big 
Secret, Alice and the Curious Stick, 
The Queen of Hearts and the Wibbly 
Wobbly Jelly, The Mad Hatter's 
Striped Pyjamas, The White Rabbit 's 
Red Nose, Humpty Dumpty 's Magic 
Garden, and The Cheshire Cat 's 

Based on her Cambridge University 
series of lectures, Margaret Atwood ad- 
dresses the "doubleness" of being a 
writer in her book Negotiating with the 
Dead: A Writer on Writing, in which 
she touches on the dual personae of Ro- 
bert Louis Stevenson, Robert Brown- 
ing, Lewis Carroll and herself, among 

Jonathan Lethem's As She Climbed 
Across the Table (Doubleday, '97) is a 
quirky piece of fiction mixing particle 
physics and Wonderland. 

Nancy Armstrong's essay "Sexuality in 
the age of racism: hungry Alice" is pub- 
lished in her Fiction in the Age of Pho- 
tography, Harvard University Press, 

Robert Littell's new spy novel. The 
Company: A Novel of the CIA, 
(Overlook Press, $29) is peppered with 
allusions to Lewis Carroll and Alice, 
including her appearance on the cover. 
For example, a Russian agent goes by 
the name of "Dodgson," the Soviet 


spymaster, named "Starik" or "Old 
Man," reads AW to his "nieces", etc. 

"Was Lewis Carroll the same person 
as Charles Lutwidge Dodgson?" With 
that question Elaine Svenonius begins 
her fascinating book The Intellectual 
Foundation of Information Organiz- 
ation (MIT Press, '01). In traditional 
library science the answer would be no, 
but that is changing with the whole 
information science revolution. 

One of the founders of China's "New 
Literature" of the 1920s was Shen 
Congwen (1902-1988). In his 1928 
novel Alisi Zhongguo youji, Shen par- 
odies Lewis Carroll and western travel 
guides in literature, though Wonderland 
is not usually thought of as travel guide 
literature in the Swiftian tradition. A 
full account of Shen's work may be 
found in The Encyclopaedia of the No- 
vel, Vol. 2, edited by Paul Schellinger. 
(Fitzroy Dearborn, '98). 


Pinhas Ben-Zvi's "Lewis Carroll and 
the Search for Non-Being" appears in 
the Spring 2002 issue of The Philo- 
sopher - The Journal of the Philo- 
sophical Society of England Volume 
LXXXX no. 1, and is online at http:// 

Daniel Capano's paper "Antonio Tabu- 
cchi, lector de Lewis Carroll," in Cua- 
dernos de Literatura Ingles a y Norte- 
americana, Vol.2, no.2, Nov. 1997. 

Joanna Tapp Pierce explores "the arti- 
ficiality of the 'cultivation' of both gar- 
dens and Victorian girls, the femin- 
ization of garden space, and gendered 
power dynamics" in her article "From 
garden to gardener: the cultivation of 
little girls in Carroll's Alice books and 
Ruskin's Of Queens' Gardens'" in 
Women 's Studies, Vol. 29, no. 6, Dec. 

The Sea Fairy: In Celebration of Vin- 
tage Illustrated Children 's Books An- 
niversary Issue (February '02) reprints 
"A Sea Dirge" from Rhyme? and 

"Tapestry of human hair found in Car- 
roll's church" read the May 2, 2002 
headline in the Daily Post of Liverpool. 
It seems that an 18* century tapestry 
made from human air was discovered 
in Darebury's All Saints Church where 
Lewis Carroll was baptized and, of 
course, where his father was rector. 

Laurie Ahem, co-director of the Na- 
tional Empowerment Center, has defied 
traditional psychiatry by recovering 
from schizophrenia. For years she 
thought she was Alice in Wonderland. 
Houston Chronicle, April 7 '02. 

NYArts, Vol. 7, no. 3 has a short review 
of Lewis Carroll, Photographer, www. 
nyartsmagazine .com . 

"The Mojo Beatles Psychedelic Special 
Edition— 1000 Days That Shook The 
World". Mojo magazine (U.K.) men- 
tions Carroll's influence on Lennon's 
"I am the Walrus", complete with fac- 
simile lyric sheet. www.mojo4music. 

In Victorian Studies (University of Ind- 
iana), Vol. 43 no. 4, 200 1 , Donald Rac- 
kin reviews In the Shadow of the 

The phrase a "Roland for an Oliver" 
when referring to acts of retribution, 
according to a question column in The 
Express (U.K.), Jan. 9, 2002, derives 
from Charlemagne's knights Roland 
and Oliver who were so similar as to 
be indistinguishable. "Eventually," the 
story goes, "they met in single combat 
and fought for five days, but without 
result because they were so evenly 
matched. They gave blow for blow, tit 
for tat — a Roland for an Oliver — hence 
the saying. Incidentally, Lewis Carroll 
later satirized the knights with his 
characters Tweedle Dum and Tweedle 

The International Herald Tribune of 
Feb. 22, 2002, reported in an almost 
unnoticed story "Harvard has disco- 
vered the man who really invented the 
recently-popular crossword puzzle was 
Lewis Carroll... Unquestionable proof 
of this fact has been found in a rare 
collection of Carroll's works and 
memorabilia presented to Harvard 
University recently by the Harcourt 

Amory estate. The collection includes 
mathematical games and puzzles amaz- 
ingly similar to the modem crossword 
problems." [All this time we thought 
it was A I Gore.] 

Beth Shapiro and seven other Oxford 
and University of London biologists re- 
ported in the Mar. 1, 2002 issue of 
Science magazine (Vol. 295) that their 
analysis of dodo DNA compared with 
DNA from 37 other species revealed 
that the Dodo and the Solitaire (another 
extinct bird) are most closely related 
to pigeons. A tree displaying the maxi- 
mum likely phylogenic relationships is 
provided for the Dodo, previously 
known by the unflattering name of 
Didus ineptus but renamed Raphus 
cucullatus, and the rest of his "clade 
of generally ground dwelling island 
endemics". A clade is a taxonomic 
group that includes all descendants of 
one common ancestor. ["Serpent!"] 

Lewis Carroll is cited in the Los Ange- 
les Times summary of the study by Dr. 
Daniel Geschwind (UCLA) on the ge- 
netic component of brain structures 
leading to left-handedness. Mar. 10 '02. 

Prof. Gordon T. Yee of Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute and State University 
discusses "Through the Looking Glass 
and What Alice Ate There" in The Jour- 
nal of Chemical Education, May 2002, 
Vol. 79, no. 5. The problem is, assum- 
ing Alice is not radically changed as she 
passes through the glass, that she is still 
only capable of processing enzymatic 
molecules of her previous handedness. 

Oulipo is the acronym for Ouvroir de 
Litter ature Potent ielle, a French group 
interested in something called "form- 
ally generated literature". One Oulipian 
exercise, which is described by Phyllis 
Rose in an article entitled "Dances with 
Daffodils" in the April 2002 issue of 
The Atlantic Monthly, is called "N plus 
7". The idea is to look up in a dictionary 
every noun occurring in a text and sub- 
stitute the seventh noun found by 
counting down from it in the dictionary. 
She concludes by referring to Lewis 
Carroll: "One thing N plus 7 teaches 
us is that nonsense is not silly but 
pretense is." 

The Winter '02 issue of Critical In- 
quiry (Vol. 28, no. 2) prints a 49-page 
excerpt from Jacques Derrida's 
address to the third Cerisy-Ia-Salle 
conference. Midway in his reflections 
on the levels of consciousness and hu- 
man thought, Derrida discusses several 
passages from the Alice books 
"including the difficulties Alice exper- 
ienced in speaking to her kitten". 

In "Toward a cultural theory of reason- 
ing" in Review of Educational Re- 
search, Vol. 71, no. 1, Spring 2001, 
Peter Smagorinsky examines Lev Se- 
menovich Vygotsky's work positing that 
"meaning comes through a reader's 
generation of new texts in response to 
the text being read" and generally 
follows Humpty Dumpty's strictures. 

Alice's Adventures in the Oral-Liter- 
ary Continuum by Bjom Sundmark was 
reviewed by Jim Addison in Lion and 
Unicorn, Vol. 25, no. 3, 2001 and by 
Jan Susina in Marvels & Tales, Vol. 15, 
no. 1,2001. 

Goldie Morgentaler's "The long and 
short of Oliver and Alice: the changing 
size of the Victorian child" appeared 
in the Dickens Studies Annual, Vol. 
29, 2000. 

"From the vault — Lewis Carroll" is 
featured in Artforum International, 
Vol. 40, no. 9, 2002. 

"Surrealists in Wonderland: Aspects of 
the appropriation of Lewis Carroll" by 
Jennifer Stafford Brown appeared in 
the Canadian Review of Comparative 
Literature/Revue canadienne de li- 
tterature comparee, Vol. 27, no. 1, '01. 

Children 's Literature Association 
Quarterly, Spring 2002, Vol. 27, no. 1 
contains a review of Men in Wonder- 
land: The Lost Girlhood of the Victor- 
ian Gentleman. 

The July '02 issue of Antiquarian 
Book Review has articles about 
Carroll's books by Joel Birenbaum and 
Selwyn Goodacre. 

Performances noted 

Kira Obolensky's "Lobster Alice," a 
play in which Salvador Dali collab- 
orates with Disney on his 1951 ani- 
mated Alice film, was revived last 


March at Houston's Stages Repertory 
Theatre [see KL 63 for the original 
production]. In the play, according to 
the Houston Chronicle, "Dali is the 
catalyst for changing the way they 
(John Finch, the invented animator and 
his girlfriend, Alice) see the world." In 
historic reality, upon arriving at Disney 
studios, one of Dali's first actions was 
to order 12 live lobsters. 

In The Notebook, Wendy Kesselman's 
one-act play at the McGinn/Cazale 
Theatre in New York in late June, the 
personas sit at an AW tea party dressed 
as the characters in an early scene. 

The Santa Fe Opera and the Museum 
of International Folk Art presented 
John Alhnan's musical play "The Mask 
of Alice" March 8-16, 2002. 

Actor Michael Richmond-Boudewyns 
brought his new interpretation of AW 
to the Hershey Theatre in Pennsylvania 
on March 15, 2002. 

On March 14, the Theatre of Western 
Springs (IL) put on AW. "There are 
wonderful swirls of Matisse-like col- 
ors all over the Wonderland," said Car- 
ol Dapogny, the director. "It's like fall- 
ing into a painting, and it's unlike any- 
thing else usually depicted in Alice 
plays or performances." 

The Evanston (IL) Dance Ensemble 
presented an original variation on AW 
at the North Shore Center for the Per- 
forming Arts on March 22, 2002. The 
cast included 40 professional dancers 
and the music ranged from ragtime to 
classical to contemporary. 

Artistic Director Sergey Kozadayev 
collaborated with Susan O'Connell in 
choreographing Salt Creek Ballet's new 
/Iff ballet in Westmont IL on Apr. 27, 

The Mefro Dancers and Portland Metro 
Performing Arts Center presented a 
dance version of AW on Apr. 27, 2002 
in Portland OR. 

Minneapolis' Children's Theafre Com- 
pany, which 20 years ago performed an 
Alice play that was featured in a Smith- 
sonian Magazine cover story (August, 
1982), is again staging Alice, this time 
directed by Dominique Serrand. He 

uses four different Alices, played by 
two girls, one woman, and one man(!). 
Through a combination of video and 
live action, Serrand tries to capture the 
surreal atmosphere of much of the 
book. Victor Zupanac composed the 
syncopated score. April-June, '02. 

Ron Cunningham's AW, Sacramento 
(CA) Ballet, March '02. 

Atlanta's Festival Ballet Company held 
an AW Tea Party on Mar. 10, 2002. 

"Alice in Oil-land" by "Art and Revolu- 
tion" at the Radical Performance Fest, 
Oakland (CA), March 31. 

William Donnelly's play "Painted 
Alice" was performed at Leverett Old 
Library Theatre in Cambridge, Mass., 
May 3-11. In this play directed by 
Heather McNamara, Alice is a young 
female artist who is transported 
through the canvas into a nightmarish 
world of real Wonderland figures and 
some parodies of them, e.g.. Sugar and 
Sucre for the two Tweedles. "A non- 
sensical artists' gathering at a disco 
recalls the Mad Hatter's tea party" in 
the opinion of reviewer Ellen Pfeifer 
in the Boston Globe, May 3, 2002. 

With an 80-member cast, the (Allen- 
town) Pennsylvania Youth Theatre pre- 
sented "Alice" on May 23, '02, featur- 
ing choreographed ballet sequences. 

The 12* annual O'Neill Puppetry Con- 
ference featured a new work by Pres- 
ton Foerder based on the Snark. 
Waterford, Conn., on June 14-15. 

Planned for August 10, 2002 is "The 
Trial of Alice," by the Niagara Civic 
Ballet, for the 36* annual Lewistown 
(NY) Outdoor Arts Festival. 

"Jabberwocky" by the Purple Cow 
Children's Theater in Stamford CN, 
July 6. 

Maria Bodmann's fabulous Balinese 
puppetry "Alice in the Shadows" played 
July 20th in Canoga Park CA, and will 
play on Halloween in San Pedro CA. 
See for details. 


The Royal Victoria Military Hospital 
at Netley was the subject of a recent 
symposium at London's Tate Britain 


Museum. Netley was the "largest build- 
ing of its kind, sprawling for one quart- 
er of a mile along the shore" when it 
was built in 1863. It housed the first 
"purpose-buih asylum for military lu- 
natics". In 1966, Jonathan Miller used 
its long corridors for his AW film. 

The PBS children's reading show 
"Between the Lions" had an episode 
broadcast in April and May called "The 
Chess Mess: Alice Day". This episode 
"had some pretty cool animations 
based on the Tenniel drawings: Alice 
talking, running with the Red Queen, 
etc." ~ Lauren Harmon 

Dodos prominently figured in The 
National Geographic Channel's show 
"Extincf ', aired in late April/early May. 

Mila Jovovich plays Alice in Resident 
Evil, a fibn based on the video game 
conflict between cannibalistic zombies 
and human, or nearly human, com- 
mandos. "The few Lewis Carroll allu- 
sions are insufficient grounds for any 
but the most fanatical collectors to see 
or, worse, to acquire this film." ~ 

"Lewis Carroll's Adventures in Russia", 
a play by Michael Bakewell, was broad- 
cast on 17 July on BBC Radio 4. 

Tom Waits' Alice, written with his wife 
Kathleen Brennan and first presented 
in Hamburg in 1992, has now been 
released on CD. "A desperate melan- 
choly pervades Alice, whose title track 
establishes the Z-o///a-like lust, and the 
tragic consequences, at the heart of the 
story." ~ Richard Harrington in The 
Washington Post, May 8, '02. "Alice 
is, in short, a revelation. The 15 songs, 
a hodgepodge of accordion- and piano- 
flush ballads and Waits' trademark 
graveyard jump-jazz, form his most 
tender work." ~ Chris Baty in SF 
Weekly. Alice is a fresh recording of 
the avant-garde opera Waits staged with 
director Robert Wilson, which was 
based on a play by Paul Schmidt, the 
text of which can be seen in the Yale 
School of Drama magazine. Theater, 
Vol. 26, no. 3, 1996, and an unauth- 
orized copy is online at 


The Inn of Imagination in California's 
wine country, the historic city of Napa 
to be precise, contains three rooms, 
which are tributes to Dr. Seuss, Jimmy 
Buffett, and C.L.Dodgson respectively, 
an odd trio to say the least. The CLD 
room is described as "striped in rich 
purples and featuring a brass and burl 
wood bed made in 1 867 and matching 
armoire, this room captures the feel of 
Dodgson's Victorian era. Bedding is 
velvet and satin with matching window 
shades. The private bath captures 
Alice's descent into the rabbit hole. 
Dozens of books and photographs 
adorn the walls. Highly polished 
hardwood floors give the room a glow 
of history." 472 Randolph Street, Napa 
CA 94559; info@innofimagination. 
charles.html; 707.224-7772; 707.202- 
0187 (fax). 

Roger Tofte and his wife Mavis have 
constructed a theme park called "The 
Enchanted Forest" near Salem, Ore- 
gon, in the Storybook Land section of 
which one finds an ''A W maze and a 
rabbit hole adventure", www.enchanted 


"Dreaming in Pictures: The Photogra- 
phy of Lewis Carroll", August 3rd - 
November 10th, at the San Francisco 
Museum of Modem Art (SFMoMA), 
curated by Douglas Nickel, with a fine 
catalog (Yale University Press, $40). 
On August 30th, SFMoMA's "Art and 
Conversation" program presents a lec- 
ture "To Stop a Bandersnatch: Mean- 
ing and Metaphor in Lewis Carroll's 
Alice Books" by Mark Burstein, to be 
followed by a docent-led tour. The 
exhibit then travels to the Museum of 
Fine Arts, Houston (February to May 
'03), the International Center for Pho- 
tography in New York (June to Sept- 
ember '03), and the Art Institute of 
Chicago (October '03 to January '04). 

Artist Fiona Banner showed at the 
Dundee Contemporary Arts exhibition 
her giant poster entitled "Arse Woman 
in Wonderland", which describes a 

pornographic film nominally, one ass- 
umes, inspired by Alice. 

"Artext", an exhibit at the Albuquerque 
Public Library, featured some of the 
typeset passages from the Alice books 
that inspired Deloss McGraw's illus- 
trations, also on view, fi-om his recent 
edition of AW. 

"The Best of the Best: The Guild of 
Book Workers Biennial Exhibition" at 
the San Francisco Main Library, May 
- June '02 included an A W^bound "with 
a Nigerian goat onlay" by Catherine 
Burkhard of Dallas. 

Claiming to be the "biggest exhibition 
about children's books ever held", 
"Wonderland: From Pietje Bell to Har- 
ry Potter" (3 October '02-5 January 
'03) is "twelve exciting pavilions of 
children's books brought to life", 
presented by the Kunsthal and the Kon- 
inklijke Bibliotheek in Rotterdam. Or 
take a virtual visit to 
land (in Dutch). 

"The Mill Valley (CA) Public Library 
Celebrates AW m July, with a small 
exhibit and many activities, http:// 

On 27 November 1998, a single large 
oak was felled in the National Trust 
estate of Tatton Park in Cheshire. The 
"onetree" project aims to show the 
unique value of our woodlands by 
showing the volume and quality of work 
that can be made fi^om this one tree. 
All parts of the tree were saved and 
distributed to artists, craftspeople and 
manufacturers to make a huge range of 
beautiful and useful pieces. All of this 
work has been brought together to form 
a major exhibition, which will travel to 
five venues across Britain. Go to www., click on "Artists" and 
then on "Loma Green" and you will see 
"Drink Me", a chair with Wonderland 


A price of $17,250 was realized on 
March 28 for a set of six small hand- 
painted porcelain plaques by John 
Tenniel "which were used as menu 
cards for the Tenniel family dinners. 

The night's fare was evidently written 
in the blank spaces with a crayon or 
grease pencil, and then wiped off after 
the meal was completed. The charac- 
ters pictured are The White Rabbit 
(with his pocket-watch), the Mock 
Turtle (crying away), the Frog Footman 
(delivering a letter), the Wahiis (with- 
out the Oysters and the Carpenter), the 
Leg of Mutton (taking a bow), and a frog 
with a rake." PBA Galleries in San 
search/item.php?anr=l 14888&. 


Our fine Webmaster, Joel Birenbaum, 
has changed the "look and feel" of the 
Lewis Carroll Home Page, all for the 

New Age (rhymes with "sewage") pro- 
phets Leslee Dm Browning and James 
G. Gavin at, a site de- 
voted to psychic messages from the 
"Hollow Earth", have written "An [in- 
teractive] Interpretation of LC's Hid- 
den Clues in AW" at 

An all-cat production of AW by "CLAW 
Theater" (with the help of Paint Shop 
Pro) at 

Renold Rose's photo-essay inspired by 
AW at 

An Alice Maize Maze at In Hebrew. Also contains 
other links that will be of interest to 
Hebrew-speaking Alice enthusiasts. 

"Alice's Quest for Emissivity" at www. 

Borges and Carroll by David D. Rob- 
bins at 
alice_in_wonderland_pagel .htm. 

"Lewis Carroll's Obtuse Problem" at 

Caroline Dionne's graduate study 
"Lewis Carroll, A Man Out Of Joint: 
The Anonymous Architect of Euclid's 
Retreat" at 

A fine site for Carroll-related books 
and ephemera from the shelves of The 


Bookstall, San Francisco: 

A free demo of "American McGee's 
Alice" can be found by typing "Alice" 
in the search box at http://gamespot. 

A personal view of the books by ''Jen" 
posts/1 99.shtml. 

"To Sleep, Perchance to Dream: Kings, 
Dreams, Brains, and Vats in Wonder- 
land" by one of Stephen Prickett's 
students at 
maybe/alice. html. 

"Hunting the Meaning of 'the Snark'" 
by Christian R. Bonawandt criticizes 
the critics, 
cfm/classic_literature/67 1 04. 

A short commentary on "Achilles and 
the Tortoise" on the website "Platonic 
Realms": www. 


Cuban-bom artist Ana Queral is talent- 
ed in many media, includmg dentistry, 
which she also practices. Her Alice 
paintings (pintura), installations (am- 
bientaciones) and ceramics {ceram- 
icd) can be found on her website www. The installation 
"Alicia Segun Ana", made for PEMEX 
in '96, is looking for a home. '"Alice 

seen by Ana' is a 36-piece installation 
with movement, sound and odor, made 
with different materials and techniques: 
drawings, paintings, art-objects, cer- 
amics, 3D papier-mache, etc. It has 
been installed in museums and galler- 
ies. Now I would like to sell it so it can 
be permanently installed. I'm asking 
only for 200,000 dollars." 

New to the Disney Summer '02 cata- 
log are Minnie Mouse dressed as Alice 
(a beanbag, $8) and a Markrita figurine 
in sculpted resin of "Alice and the 
White Rabbit" ($95). 

L.W. Currey's Science Fiction and 
Fantasy Authors: A Bibliography of 
First Printings of Their Fiction and 
Non-Fiction, originally published in 
1979 as a primary resource for deter- 
mining first edition and state, has been 
revised and is available on CD-ROM. 

The authors of The Red King 's Dream 
and The Alice Companion have a set 
of ten hand-colored Tenniel prints 
($39 each) on their website: www.glad 2002.htm. 

A $900 Alice doll from the "Lawton 
Library Collection". www.lav^ondoUs. 
com; The Lawton Doll Company, 548 
North First Street, Turlock CA 95380. 
209.632-3655; -6788 fax; Customer 

Fine new A W gift- wrap paper from the 
NY Public Library Shop, www.thelib 

Vladimir Verechagin's AW etching is 
available as a print for $200 at 

Randy Greifs AW, described as "six 
hours of electronic soundscapes, de- 
constructed text and computer mani- 
pulations" is a boxed re-release on 5 
CDs of a 1991-1993 opus. Comes with 
trading cards! Go to his record label at and type "Greif 
in the search box. 

"Blackwork Bag" needlepoint patterns 
for the Hatter and the Queen of Hearts 
htm. They sell the charts and supplies. 

A miniature stage with seven of the 
characters: "These vignettes are per- 
fectly scaled to complement traditional 
European 54mm (2-1/8") collections, 
cast in fine pewter and meticulously 
hand-painted." $82.50 from "Collect- 
ions of the Casf : www. onebyonellc. 
One by One, LLC, PO Box 3197, 
Lantana, FL 33465; (800)725-9679; 
(561)582-2436 (which accepts faxes); 

Gratefiil Dead-heads at Liquid Blue sell 
"Wonderland incense" with pictures 
from the Nursery Alice, www. liquid 

Our Cover 

In honor of the symmetrical properties of this issue's number, our cover (the first verse of "Jabberwocky") highlights the 
work of Kevm Pease. His "ambigrams" (works that read the same upside-down) are a delight. See 
ambigram/index.html. ©2002 Kevin Pease and reprinted with permission. 

For help in preparing this issue thanks are due to: Earl Abbe, Fran Abeles, Ruth Berman, Joel Birenbaum, Gary 
Brockman, Carolyn Buck, Matt Demakos, Llisa Demetrios Burstein, Sandor Burstein, Angelica Carpenter, Monica 
Edinger, Devra Kunin, August Imholtz, Clare Imholtz, Janet Jurist, Stephanie Lovett, Lucille Posner, Alan Tannenbaum, 
Alison Tannenbaum, Edward Wakeling, Cindy, Charlotte, and Nick Watter, and Sue Welsch. 

Knight Letter is the official newsletter of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. It is published several times 
a year and is distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be addres- 
sed to the Secretary, P.O.Box 204, Napa CA 94559. Annual membership dues are U.S. $20 (regular) and $50 (sustain- 
ing). Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor, Box 2006, Mill Valley CA 94942. 

President: Stephanie Lovett, Secretary: Cindy Watter, 

Vice-President and Knight Letter Editor: Mark Burstein, 

Lewis Carroll Society of North America Home Page: